Chemistry Syllabus

Syllabus for Secondary and Higher Secondary Levels
Higher Secondary Stage is the most crucial stage of school education because at this stage specialised
discipline based, content oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of
general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of mostly for pursuing their career in basic
sciences or professional courses like medicines, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied
areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, at this stage, there is a need to provide
learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to
meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage.
National Curriculum Framework for School Education – 2005 recommends a disciplinary approach
with appropriate rigour and depth with the care that syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is
comparable to the international level. It emphasizes a coherent focus on important ideas within the
discipline that are properly sequenced to optimize learning. It recommends that theoretical component
of Higher Secondary Science should emphasize on problem solving methods and the awareness of
historical development of key concepts of science be judiciously integrated into content. The present
exercise of syllabus development in Chemistry at Higher Secondary Stage is based on this framework.
Salient features of the present syllabus are thus:
• Some background of Chemistry from secondary stage is assumed; however, no specific
knowledge of topics in Chemistry is pre-supposed.
• The course is self-contained and broadly covers fundamental concepts of Chemistry.
• Attempt has been made to see discipline of Chemistry does not remain only the science of
facts but becomes related to modern applications in the world around us.
• The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the ‘Units’ of the subject matter with proper
placement of concepts with their linkages for better understanding.
• Emphasis has been on promoting process – skills, problem solving abilities and applications
of concepts of Chemistry useful in real life situation for making learning of Chemistry more
relevant, meaningful and interesting.
• An effort has been made on the basis of feedback, to remove repetition besides reducing the
content by suitably integrating the different content areas.
• Practical syllabus has two components. There are core experiments to be undertaken by the
students in the classroom and will be part of examination while each student will carry out one
investigatory project and submit the report for the examination.
With this background, the Chemistry curriculum at the higher secondary stage attempts to
• promote understanding of basic principles in Chemistry while retaining the excitement in Chemistry;
• develop an interest in students to study Chemistry as discipline;
• strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage and to provide firm foundation for
further learning of Chemistry at tertiary level more effectively;
develop positive scientific attitude, and appreciate contribution of Chemistry towards the
improvement of quality of human life;
• develop problem solving skills and nurture curiosity, aesthetic sense and creativity;
• inculcate values of honesty, integrity, cooperation, concern for life and preservation of the environment;
• make the learner realise the interface of Chemistry with other disciplines of science such as
Physics, Biology, Geology, etc;
• equip students to face challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, whether
industries and agriculture.
Theory Total Periods 180
Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (Periods 14)
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic
theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical
and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit II: Structure of Atom (Periods 16)
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s
model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations,
concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg
uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules
for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule,
electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties (Periods 8)
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table,
modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic
trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic radii,
inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
electronegativity, valence.
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
(Periods 16)
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters,
Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character
of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of
covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization
involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules,
molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only),
hydrogen bond.
Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids (Periods 14)
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points,
role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Gay Lussac’s
law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number,
ideal gas equation, deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no
mathematical derivations).
Unit VI: Thermodynamics (Periods 16)
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,
measurement of Δ U and Δ H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous
process, equilibrium.
Unit VII: Equilibrium (Periods 16)
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass
action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic
equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization,
concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, solubility product, common
ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox Reactions (Periods 6)
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions,
oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications
of redox reactions.
Unit IX: Hydrogen (Periods 8)
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of
hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water,
heavy water; hydrogen peroxide – preparation, reactions and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) (Periods 14)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first
element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization
enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and
halogens; uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological
importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO 3 , and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements (Periods 16)
General Introduction to p-Block Elements
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group;
Boron – physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids,
boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element.
Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important
compounds: oxides.
Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride , silicones, silicates and
Unit XII: Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques (Periods 14)
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification
and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance
and hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions;
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons (Periods 16)
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes: Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical
reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes: Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical
properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water,
hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism
of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes: Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of
preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen,
halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance, aromaticity;
chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution – nitration sulphonation, halogenation,
Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted
benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry (Periods 6)
Environmental pollution : Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs,
major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone
layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry
as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Practicals Total Periods 60
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible
such techniques should be used.
A. Basic Laboratory Techniques (Periods 2)
1. Cutting glass tube and glass rod
2. Bending a glass tube
3. Drawing out a glass jet
4. Boring a cork
B. Characterisation and Purification of Chemical Substance (Periods 6)
1. Determination of melting point of organic compound.
2. Determination of boiling point of organic compound.
3. Crystallization involving impure sample of any one of the following: Alum, Copper
sulphate, Benzoic acid.
C. Experiments Related to pH Change (Periods 6)
(a) Any one of the following experiments:
• Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known
and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
• Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.
• Study the pH change in the titration of a strong acid with a strong base using universal
(b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases.
D. Chemical Equilibrium (Periods 4)
One of the following experiments:
(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocynate ions by increasing/
decreasing the concentration of either ions.
(b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co (H 2 O)6 ]
and chloride ions by changing the
concentration of either of the ions.
E. Quantitative Estimation (Periods 16)
• Using a chemical balance.
• Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.
• Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against
standard solution of oxalic acid.
• Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.
• Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against
standard sodium carbonate solution.
F. Qualitative Analysis (Periods 16)
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
Cations – Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , As 3+ , Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ ,
Mg 2+ , NH
Anions – CO
3 , S
, SO
3 , SO
4 , NO

2 , NO

3 , Cl

, Br

, I

, PO
4 , C2O

(Note : Insoluble salts excluded)
Project (Periods 10)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested projects
• Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ions.
• Study of the methods of purification of water.
• Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. depending upon the regional
variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presences of these ions above
permissible limit (if any)
• Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of
sodium carbonate on them.
• Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.
• Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
• Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
• Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen
with the approval of the teacher.
Theory Total Periods 60
Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic
solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three
dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms
per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit II: Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases
in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of
B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations
of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis
(elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a
cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel
cells; corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant,
integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision
theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).
Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids;
catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state:
distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular
and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,
electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8)
Principles and methods of extraction: concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and
refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p-Block Elements (Periods 14)
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states,
trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds
of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure
only); Phosphorous – allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties
of phosphine, halides (PCl 3 , PCl 5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple
oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and
uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses,
oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties
and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens
(structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical
and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Period 14)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization
enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial
compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids: electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid
Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (Period 12)
Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties
and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding;
isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of
metals and biological systems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (Periods 12)
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism
of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for
monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrochloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary
alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols;
mechanism of dehydration, uses, some important compounds –
methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic
substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones
and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12)
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature,
nature of carbonyl group, methods
of preparation, physical and chemical properties,
and mechanism of nucleophilic addition,
reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose),
oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen);
Proteins: Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary
structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only),
denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins: Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA .
Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8)
Classification: Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters,
bakelite, rubber.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life (Periods 8)
1. Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,
antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Practicals Total Periods 60
Microchemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible
such techniques should be used.
Surface Chemistry (Periods 5)
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.
Lyophilic sol : starch, egg albumin and gum.
Lyophobic sol : aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenious sulphide.
(b) Dialysis of sol prepared in (a) above.
(c) Study of the role of emulsifying agent in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
B. Chemical Kinetics (Periods 4)
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium
thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different
concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate (KIO 3 ) and sodium sulphite (Na 2 SO 3 ) using
starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
C. Thermochemistry (Periods 4)
Any one of the following experiments:
(a) Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
(b) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH).
(c) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between
acetone and chloroform.
D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn 2+ //Cu 2+ /Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes
(CuSO 4 or ZnSO 4 ) at room temperature.
E. Chromatography (Periods 2)
(a) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography
and determination of R f values.
(b) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only
(constituents having wide difference in R f values to be provided).
F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4)
(a) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
(b) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 2)
Preparation of any one of the following compounds:
(a) Acetanilide
(b) Di-benzal acetone
(c) p-Nitroacetanilide.
(d) Aniline yellow or 2-Napththol aniline dye.
H. Test for the Functional Groups Present in Organic Compounds (Periods 5)
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.
I. Study of Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins in Pure Form and Detection of their
Presence in given Food Stuffs (Periods 4)
J. Determination of Concentration/Molarity of KMnO 4 Solution by Titrating it
against a Standard Solution of (Periods 8)
(a) Oxalic acid
(b) Ferrous ammonium sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative Analysis (Periods 10)
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt.
Cations – Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , As 3+ , Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ ,
Mg 2+ , NH
Anions – CO
3 , S
, SO
3 , SO
4 , NO

2 , NO

3 , Cl

, Br

, I

, PO
4 , C2 O

(Note : Insoluble salts excluded)
Project (Periods 10)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested projects
• Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
• Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
• Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd
formation, effect of temperature, etc.
• Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions
(temperature, concentration, time etc.)
• Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
• Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram
flour, potato juice, carrot juice etc.
• Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
• Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder
and pepper.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen
with the approval of the teacher.

Number of Principals

Sl.No Name of School Name of Principal Telephone Numbers
Office Residence Mobile
1 GVHSS (Boys), Chittur MARY PRAJA.M.R 04923 222540
2 GTHS & VHSS Chittur MOHANDAS.P 04923 222174 9447073017
3 GVHSS Vattenad T.RAMACHANDRAN 0466 2370084 0466 2277050 9446815684
4 GTHS & VHSS Shornur MUHAMMED SALIM.K 0466 2222197 0466 2380622 9446148369
5 GVHSS Alanallur P.VIDYADHARAN 04924 262320 04924 262981 9447942956
6 GVHSS Cherpulassery V.GOVINDADAS 0466 2282667 0466 2207440 9446017440
7 GVHSS Pathiripala A.SREEDEVI 0491 2872460 0491 2840256 94959802560
8 GVHSS Koonathara SEETHALAKSHMI 0466 2227353 0466 2221746 9446237433
9 GTHS Palakkad P.N.VISAMBARAN 04912 572038 0491 2846441 9447536227
10 GVHSS Kanjikode THANKAMANI.M.P 0491 2566205 9446338253
11 GVHSS Malampuzha PADMAKUMARI.A 0491 2815243 0491 2577012 9495396413
12 GVHSS Agali T.G.NAYOMI 04924 254175 9495094528
13 GTVHSS Puthoor, Attappady K.A.SULAIMAN 04924 209399 04924 651644 9495858001
14 GVHSS Karakurissi V.ABDUL RAHIMAN 04924 249041 04924 244664 9847720970
15 GVHSS Koppam RUGMA BHAI.A.S 0466 2265333 0466 2246944 9495086122
16 GVHSS(Girls) Nenmara N.PARAMESWARANKUTTY 04923 243230 04923 243462 9447248665
17 GSMVHSS Thattamangalam K.BHARATHY 0466 227036 0466 2224698 9847640290
18 NSSKPTVHSS Ottappalam A.NIRMALA 0466 2244232 0466 2230432 9495036367
19 GMVHSS Thiruvalathur M.B.NARAYANAN NAIR 0491 2574115 0491 2106489 9495356099
20 CFDVHSS Mathur P.R.RADHAMANY 04922 214032 04912 508222 9495708696
21 MVHSS Pudunagaram N.NARAYANANKUTTY 04923 252557 04923 242454
22 SVVHSS Eruthenpathy M.N.MURALEEDHARAN NAIR 04923 2363887 04923 282478 9447580130
23 SFXVHSS Parassikkal Sr.ALPHONSA 04923 235656 04923 235710 NIL
24 KPSMVHSS Varode MEENAKUMARI.C.K 0466 2249013 0466 2104445 9447840076
25 KMPBVHSS Tavanur V.M.THAMI 0494 2687899 9946504688
26 GTHS & VHSS Manjeri C.M.ABDURAHIMAN 0483 2766185 9494530301
27 GRFTVHSS Tanur SNEHALATHA.P 0494 2443721 0494 2441873 9895895011
28 GVHSS Chelari P.D.MANIYAPPAN 0494 2400364 0494 2584670 9446247498
29 GVHSS(Girls) Vengara YAKOBKUTTY.V.S 0494 2451677 9946654253
30 GVHSS Kondotty P.S.SYAMALADEVI 0483 2711820 0483 2769739 NIL
31 GMVHSS Nilambur M.T.JAMES 0493 223140 04931 275676 9446227925
32 GVHSS(Girls) Perinthalmanna K.ARAVINDAKSHAN 04933 221171 04933 239680 9995689111
33 GVHSS Mankada SARALA.M 04933 239050 04933 239066 9447048020
34 GVHSS(Girls) Tirur NALINAKUMARI.O 04942422140 0494 2421166 9447838488
35 GVHSS Kalpakanchery C.T.BALABHASKARAN 0494 2547069 9446246582
36 GVHSS Mampad CHINNAMMA THOMAS 04931 221085 04931 221657 9495740791
37 GVHSS Paravanna VELAYUDHAN.A.V 0494 2630234 0494 2578518 9447838510
38 GVHSS Makkaraparamba KUNHUMOHAMED.N.K 04933 283060 04933 281908 9446246188
39 GVHSS Chettiyankinar A.P.SUDEVAN 0494 2495653 0495 2565554 9446395388
40 GVHSS Pullanur ANANDAVALLY AMMAL.P.V 0483 2773925 0494 2682232 9846202783
41 GVHSS Keezhuparamba RAMACHANDRAN.V.K 0483 2858202 0483 2844866 9446249088
42 SHMGVHSS Edavanna E.RAMLATH 0495 2811077 9249962942
43 GVHSS Omanoor JAYALAKSHMI.K 0483 2725877 0483 2713415
44 GVHSS Arimbra ABOOBACKER.N 0483 2773360 9995015063
45 GVHSS Nellikuth, Manjeri K.NARAYANAN EMBRANTHIRI 0483 2865080 0483 2784204 9495531439
46 GVHSS(Girls), Wandoor E.KUMARI 0493 1247670 0493 1247606 9447832937
47 GVHSS Vengara K.ASSAN 0494 2450434 0494 2452110 9446032110
48 BYKVHSS Valavannur K.O.DEVESYA 0494 2546031 0482 262320 9446880986
49 PMSAVHSS Chappanangadi M.K.KRISHNA KUMAR 0483 2708266 0483 2733425 9447216388
50 SVVHSS PALEMAD A.K.BABY 04931 275381 04931 231824 9447536227


List and Addresses of Area wise Officers
1. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Kadappakada, Kollam
2. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Chengannur

(Near Govt. Girls VHSS Chengannur).
3. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Toll Gate, Edapally, Ernakulam
4. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Mini Civil Station, Chembukkavu, Thrissur
5. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Kuttippuram, Malappuram
6. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Near Mini Civil Station, Vadakara
7. The Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Payyannur, Kannur
Name, Address, Telephone No. E-mail etc. of important authorities.
Mohan Abraham
Directorate of Vocational Higher Secondary Education
Housing Board Building, 4th Floor
Santhi Nagar, Thiruvananthapuram – 1
Tel. No. 2325318 (off)
2325323 (off)
9447739752 (M)

Designation / Section Name Phone No.
Res./ Mobile Office Extension
Deputy Director Curriculum) V. Levakumar 9447419452 04712325318 23
Deputy Director(General) M.O.Pushpendran 9446461713 04712325318 24
Administrative Officer P. Regi Varghese
9446554725 04712325318 26
Assistant Director (Curriculum) Mini. E. R 9446741707 04712325318
Finance Officer K. Thrivikraman Potti 9447587234 04712325318 25
Account Officer (Audit) T. S. Thilakan 9961357787 04712325318 29
Account Officer (PF) P. Jainamma 9446016245 04712325318 33
Nodal Officer P. K. Sankaran Kutty 04712325318 27
Research Assistant Suhara Banu K. P 9495966393 04712325318 47
Senior Superintendent S. Sreedharan Nair 9447889991 04712325318 48
Fair copy Superintendent FC Nirmala 954742729543 04712325318 31
Superintendent PF Nandakumar 9447279321 04712325318 34
Junior Superintendent C S. Lekshmana Iyyer 2453478 04712325318
Head Accountant A1 Joseph K. X 04712325318 39
Head Clark PF Chithra O. S 9446283683 04712325318 32
UDC (HG) E1 Prameela S. K 9447495932 04712325318 42
UDC (HS) B1 Bhasi 9446023469 04712325318 40
UDC (HG) APF Esakkimuthu 9447892592 04712325318 45
UDC (HG) E4 Sreekumar. S 04651-322966 04712325318 43
UDC D2 Sree Renjan 9446396298 04712325318 46
UDC E6 Anitha 9349472661 04712325318 43
LDC (HG) C4 Treesa 9447556868 04712325318 41
LDC (HG) C3 Suma Devi 9446458070 04712325318 41
LDC C1 Sreeprasad 9846171032 04712325318 40
UDC (HG) F2 Rajeev Thomas 9446474422 04712325318 45
LDC F1 Ajayaghosh 9446183015 04712325318 45
UDC (HG) E2 Rajan 9446355482 04712325318 44
UDC (HG) C2 Balagopal 9447379300 04712325318 40
LDC B2 Suresh Kumar T 9447751037 04712325318 41
UDC A2 Sheela 944634702 04712325318 39
UDC E5 & E3 Lekha Chandrasekhar 9446076372 04712325318 42
UDC APF Sebastian Perara 9446079859 04712325318 45
CA CA Gerard Majella Jakson 9447183647 04712325318 22
UDC D1, PF Asok Kumar C 9495408645 04712325318 46
LD EL Karthikeyan 2492516 04712325318 44
APF Sarath. S 9349061988 04712325318
Computer Operator PF Maya D Nair 2340858 04712325318 46
Computer Operator CG Mansoor 9847569029 04712325318 27
Driver C. Krishnankutty 9349935330 04712325318
Driver Deepu 9895305982 04712325318
Peon Savithri 9446496648 04712325318 31
Peon Hari. A 9446559764 04712325318
Peon Larance 3267092 04712325318
Peon Krishnankutty 9846558423 04712325318
Night Watchman Antony J. P 9446210582 04712325318
Peon Madhusudhanan C. T 9495568877 04712325318 20
Designation / Section Name Phone No.
Residence/ Mobile Office Exten.
Secretary Betty Cherian 9447402028 2324015 36
Technical Officer Kurian A John 0471-2524020 2324015 37
Senior Superintendent A. Nizerudeen 9446175619 2324015
UDC (HG) Sumanam 9995253349 2324015 38
LDC Dwijesh 9387268802 2324015
Typist Shylaja 9446384969 2324015
LDC Santhosh G. R 9446181638 2324015
UDC (HG) Rajan R 9446060010 2324015
Computer Operator (WA) Rajan K 9947465410 2324015
Data Entry Operator Sheeba 9895814145 2324015
Peon Ramesh. V. S 0472-2814345 2324015
Peon Sudhan 2406711 2324015
Designation Name Phone Number
Mobile/ Residence Office
NSS Programme Co-ordinator S. Sreedharan Nair 9447889991 04712321879
Office Superintendent B. Sasikumar 04712321879
Computer Operator Brahmadas R. I 9387813372 04712321879
Region Name of Assistant Directors Res./ Mobile Office Email Address
Kollam Sheeba S. 9446047377 0474 -2749420
Chengannur T.V. Anil Kumar 9447104088 0479 – 2455901
Ernakulam Dr. Leena Ravidas 9447668708 0484 – 2555767
Thrissur Geetha T.K. 9895240670 0487 – 2332587
Kuttippuram Liji Joseph 9446091378 0494 – 2608083
Vadakara T.H.Vijayaraghavan 9846051355 0496 – 2524911
Payyannur Ajith K 9447166063 0498 – 2504480

Minutes of the Video Conference at Gorkhi Bhavan

Minutes of the Video Conference at Gorkhi Bhavan, Thiruvananthapuram at 3 pm

The Principals of GVHSS Kottukal, Vattiyoorkavu and Karakulam participated in the Video Conference as an introductory speech the Director instructed to prepare a plan of action for remedial coaching in order to achieve 80% results and be present in the entire session.
The Director also told that 1st instalment for remedial coaching
@ Rs. 12,500/- was released to all 62 schools and the balance will be released on submission of the detailed action plan, and star line of the programme in principle. Necessary academic support will be given by the Assistant Director concerned.
Alappuzha Centre
Director instructed Sri. Anil kumar, AD, Chengannur to narrate the action plan. The 2 schools were participated in the Alappuzha Centre - He told that 1 day workshop already conducted.
Necessary steps have already been taken for the implementation of Remedial Coaching in the schools below 50% results.
The Director appreciated the initiative taken by him. Assistant Director Chengannur requested to issue necessary guidelines for the expenditure and re-allotment issued to schools.
Director replied that we should assess what the student achieved, what is weakness of the student. There should be no hard and fast rule – Periodical Evaluation should be there. It should be documented Assistant Director should propose the guideline of expenditure, Honorarium to teachers, academician to boost up the energy. Everything should be decentralized and the action plan should came from the grass root level. Director permitted to procure interact CD, Multimedia, Purchase of consumables etc.
Those schools who are urgent need of consumable may inform the gave to the undersigned in personal cover.

ETC – Kasaragod District
It is informed that the students are coming from remote village areas. Hence, they should be uplifted from 37% to 80% and above by clearly checking out daily plan, weekly plan and yearly plan and also forms care group consists of experts and conduction unit test.
ETC – Kottarakkara
Assistant Director Kollam and others participated. Kollam Region is having the highest number of schools below 50%. Total no comes to 25 schools. Assistant Director narrated the various steps. The Principal School alleged that their poor result in Maths & English was due to defects with paper valuation. Director instructed the Secretary, Exam to take the answer scripts and report what happened.
Principal, Thadicad told that they are encouraging the students coming from the weaker sections of the society. Subjects GFC, Eng are major issues to the students.

The participants agreed to the action taken by the Assistant Director Concerned. They only doubt was about mid term exam. Director clarified it.

ETC-Kottayam District
The principal of Kumarakom, Kothala was present. They told that the subject English shares very poor results.
ETC-Kozhikkode and Wayanad
Assistant Director, Vadakara informed that steps have already been taken. Dir instructed him to visit all the schools under Payyannur region and submit report before October to the undersigned.
Director instructed the Principal, THS Sultanbathery to prepare an action plan and submit urgently to DVHSE and also to report the cause of long absence by the Maths Teacher for taking necessary action.
The Principal, GVHSS Kanjikkode enquired whether the 1st year student may also be included in the remedial coaching. Director agreed the same in principle.
Director concluded the Video Conference directing all Assistant Directors to prepare proposals and suggestion of the following points:
1. Vocational Survey – to be completed in 10/08 – entrusted to Assistant Director, Thrissur
2. Data Base at school level.
3. Mid Term Exam
4. PTC
5. OJT – Identifying OJT Centres and Indicators to be fixed
6. Expo - 2009
7. Budget 2009-10 (PLAN and NON PLAN)
8. 1st year Exam (Public Exam)
9. Net working IT @ School - To forward the expert panel
10. New Schools - How to conduct practical.
11. XII FC – Tender Excess it should be borne by District Panchayath.
12. XIII FC – Web site
Introduction of VHSE – 1st Generation.
13. Employability and Enhancement – 2nd Generation.
14. CG & CC
15. Induction Programme of newly recruited teachers.
16. Research Wing.
17. Vocational Education at College level. Vocational Teachers to be engaged.
18. Question paper setting
19. Seminar and Symposium
20. Non-formal education
From the above discussion, it is informed by the Director to call a meeting of subject wise teachers in 3 Regional Centres Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam and Kozhikkode in which subjects there were poor results.



ON 6TH JUNE 2008

The following diginitories were present on the dais

Shri. Mohan Abraham, Director, VHSE
Shri. M. O. Pushpendran, Deputy Director, VHSE
Shri. V. Levakumar, Former Deputy Director (C), VHSE
Shri. P. Reji Varghese, Administrative Officer, VHSE
Shri. T. S. Thilakan, Accounts Officer(Audit), DVHSE
Smt. P. Jainamma, Accounts Officer (PF), DVHSE
Smt. Liji Joseph, Assistant Director, ROVHSE, Kuttippuram
Smt. Leena Ravidas, Assistant Director, ROVHSE, Ernakulam
Smt. T. K. Geetha, Assistant Director, ROVHSE, Thrissur
Shri. Fazil E, NSS Programme Co-ordinator, NSS VHSE
Shri. Kurian A John, Technical Officer, Exam wing, VHSE
Smt. Suhara Banu K. P, Research Assistant, DVHSE
Shri. P.K. Sankaran Kutty, Nodal Officer, Career Guidance, DVHSE
Shri. S. Sreedharan Nair, Senior Superintendent, DVHSE

The meeting started at 10.15 am with a prayer.

Welcome Speech was made by Smt. T. K. Geetha, Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Officer, Thrissur. The keynote address was made by Shri. Mohan Abraham, Director, VHSE. He said that we have better results this year.

Principals should take necessary steps for formation of plan for the new accademic year. We have permanent teachers for all subjects in all schools. The newly inducted teachers should be given training regarding the new grading scheme of education. This shall be arranged by Principals with the help of senior, experienced teachers.

An academic core group should be formed in all schools using the service of resourceful persons of the locality.

The proces of arriving at formation of a product is important. The Principals should take a leading role in imparting the right kind of training to students.

PTCs, OJTs and recruitment programmes should be given importance. PTCs should function effectively. The guidelines are being formulated by the Department. The Planning Board has given sanction for mobile sales units. The Department has involvement in the selection of Training Centres for OJT. Principals should take special interest in arranging effective training.

Alls registers and documents should be neatly maintained in all Schools. They shall be produced for inspection at any time.

Academic Inspection will be conducted with the help of Acedemecians.

Career Guidance and Councelling Centres should function properly. The Department has close monitoring regarding this. Shri. P. K. Sankaran Kutty is functioning as the Nodal Officer. The role of GFC teachers will be specified.

The performance of schools with below 30% of results is not satisfactory. The faults should be found out and rectified.

The Department will have a friendly approach to all officers. But everybody should have commitment to the Department and Society.

Our is a vocational system of education. We are conducting studies regarding the relation of Non vocational subjects to vocational subjects.

Source Books of all subjects have been made available in the Department website. Those who do not have the Source Books in their schools, can dowload from the VHSE website

Utilisation of funds of MGP scheme should be completed effectely. Principals should take necessary steps in this.

We have a full time NSS Programme Co-ordinator now. He is doing his work well.
Let us have a fruitfull academic year. Necessary funds will be made available for purchase. Principals will make necessary steps for this.

Shri. Mohan Abraham, Director conclued his speech at 11 am.

The next speech was delivered by Shri. M.O. Pushpendran, Deputy Director General. He made the following comments.

Necessary training has been given to teachers during vacation.

Application form and prospectus have been issues to schools. If there should be any change in dates, for submission of application, publication of rank lists, interview and beginning of classes that should be suggested here.

A survery is proposed to be conducted. Smt. T. K Geetha, Assistant Director, Thrissur is in charge of this survey. A team will visit all schools for the survey. Necessary documents should be prepared by each school. All staff should be present on the day of the visit of the survey. All help should be given to the survey team.

Write-ups have been prepared for all vactional subjects. This should be circulated. Sugestion, if any shall be intimated to the Directorate.

Suggestions for curriculum revision shall be entertained by the Department. The department has planned a number of training programmes for all classes of officers. Shri. Pushpendran, DDG concluded his speech at 11.10 am.

Shri. Regi Varghese, AO made his speech followed by Shri. M. O. Pushpendran.

Principals should give answers to queries regarding Right to Information.

He congratulated all staff for their contribution to this year’s good result. He completed his speech at 11.15 am.

Mementos to the following Retired Principals were distributed by the Director.

1. Shri. Ousephunny, Govt Girls VHS School, Irinjalakkuda
2. Smt. Rosy, Govt. VHSS, Ollur
3. Smt. Nirmala Devi, SSM VHS School, Edakkazhiyur
4. Smt. Sreedevi, Govt. VHSS, Thrissur
5. Smt. Koumudi, Govt. VHSS, Cherpu
6. Smt. Kochu, Govt. VHSS, Wadakkanchery
7. Shri. Raju, THS & VHSS, Thrissur
8. Smt. Margretha, Govt. VHSS, Thiruvillwamala
9. Smt. Karthu, Govt. VHSS, Ramavarmapuram
10. Shri. Baby, Govt. VHSS, Moolamattom
11. Smt. Baby, MASM VHSS, Venmanad
12. Shri. Gopalakrishnan, Vocational Teacher, MASM VHSS, Venmanad
13. Smt. Princy, Govt. VHSS, Thalikulam (not present)

Career Guidance & Counselling Cell Awards were given to the following Schools of Thrissur Region.

1) Sarvodayam VHS School, Aryampadam
2) SNDP VHS School, Admimaly

Following this, releasing of e-mail ID of schools of Thrissur Region was made by the Director, VHSE, Trivandrum. On this occation he said that the networking of all VHS Schools of Kerala will be done within two months.

Sri. Tilakan, Accounts Officer stated his speech at 11.45 am. He made the following remarks.

The limit to local puchase is Rs.500/- AS & PS should be obtained for purchases for more than Rs.500/-

Cash book should be attested everyday with full signature below and initials at every entry.

CD Register should be maintained properly with necessary entries against accounts of each student. After 2 years of completion of course of a student, the CD should be remitted in revenue head.

Smt. Jainamma, Accaounts Officer (PF) briefed on PF.

Smt. Suhra Banu, Research Assistant made the following remarks. A proposal for selection of model schools is on. Modules are being prepared for behavioral aspects of students in VHS Schools.

Fazil E, NSS Co-ordinator made his speech followed by the Reseach Assistant.

The meeting of Programme Officers was called on the direction of the Director, with a view to strengthen the performance of NSS Programme Officers. Social commitment is an inevetive part of the functioning of NSS. It aims at personality development of students. He cited an example of performance of NSS Volunteers in a school in Alappuzha District, where they could help in improvement of the results of that school.

The NSS Cell has formed certain programmes to strengthen NSS activities in all schools. School Level Advisroy Committees should be formed and function properly. We should make ‘Ente Maram’ programme our programme.

Shri. Sreedharan Nair, Senior Superintendent made the following remarks.

PSC postings are being done systematically. Ids of PSC appointed hands should be kept at school. NJDs with Ids should be sent on the next day of the last date fixed for joining. Joining reports also should be forwarded immediately.

SBs of of Non Gazetted Officers should be sent to the Directorate for declaration of probation with Conduct Certificate from schools they have worked.

LWA up to 3 months shall be sanctioned by principals. Leave will come to effect only after sanctioning of the same. Application for leave shall be submitted one month in advance.

He gave information regarding appointments in Aided Schools.

Kurian A John, Technical Officer briefed on the VHS Examinations.

He said that the honouring of Rtd. Principals was very apt.

The students should benefit with the intenvention of the principals. Care should be taken in registering students for examinations. There were faults in uploading of data. QPR should be prepared with atmost care. Negligence in checking register numbers in answer script should be avoided.

Shri. V. Levakumar, Rt. Deputy Director, Curricullum, now working in National Institute of Open Schooling made his speech.

Teachers should always innovate their knowledge and transfer such ideas to students. The main objective of Vocational Education is to achieve skill completency. We should critically evaluate whether that is happening now.

Vocational Education is given great prominence now a days. Vocational factor is added from the level of 8th standared onwards. Principals and academic heads work hand in hand. The school should have a good plan for their functioning. The planning shall be made incorporating the help of all Community including teachers, parents, local bodies, experts etc.

The possibilities of Electronics media shall be incorporated in Education. The VHSE has good results this years, still that shall be improved further.

Shri. Sankarankutty, Nodal Officer, Career Guidance and Councelling Cell.

The reports from VHS Schools come properly.

The activities have improved. Cash Awards have been implemented for the best school in each district. The career master can solve issues with children or he can direct them to proper persons for consolation.

Report of Career Guidance activities shall be sent to Regional Officers and Directorate in time. Funds will be alloted for the activities of the cell.

Lakshmana Iyer, Junior Superintendent said that ifelectricity charges and water charges are not met by local bodies, a certificate to that effect shall be sent to the Directorate. In such cases the amount will be sanctioned by the Department.

There is monthly ceiling for TA.

Smt. Liji AD Kuttippuram made her speech.


Smt. Meenakshi, SM VHS School, Thathamangalam requested for facilities of language lab & Library.

The Director said that the first thing is to improve the competency of English teachers. Language lab facilities are available in colleges. We can make use of that also. The department is taking necessary steps.

A masterplan is being prepared for issue of library books.

Govt. VHS School (THS) Palakkad rquested for two courses at the insistance of the PTA but five courses were sanctioned. Facilities are lacking.

Director: Rupees 1.98 crore has been sanctioned for arranging facilities in newly started courses. The school will also get the funds. The school can decide on the number of courses.

Unnikrishnan, Principal, RM VHS School, Perinjanam:
There are problems in Continous Evaluation at the Secondary Level. The same may not be repeated at VHSE level. He was pointing out on the award of Continous Evaluation marks to students.

Director: Award of Continous Evaluation marks has not influenced this year’s results. Continous Evaluation marks are given by teachers. The instiution has the responsibility of awarding of continuous Evaluation maks. Nobody compelled anybody to give such marks. Let us positively, critically evaluate this.

Academic Govt. VHS School, Vattanad

We have good results. Continous Evaluation marks have been given to deserving candidates only. Salaries of teachers of new courses have not been paid so far. Earned Leave Surrender is not sanctioned.

Director: The salaries will be disbursed with retrospective effect. Steps have been taken for the same. Earned Leave Surrender will be sanctioned. Assistant Directors will give necessary Support.

Principal, THS & VHS School, Palakkad.

Downloading of source book – such facilities are not available. LCD projecter not provided.

There are constraints of financial resources. Still our Regional Offices have LCDs and Laptop. The department is ready for giving infrastructure facilities. But the schools should come forward with requests. Braoadband connectivety will be provided to all schools.

Mohandas, Principal, VHS & THS Chittoor

Issue of Application forms after the beginning of classes. This has a demoralizing effect. So this should be stopped.

Students will be attracted to VHSE if we provide good coaching. Issue of applications after the beginning of classes will in no way affect demand for VHSE. We are going to restructure VHS Courses. Workshops are planned to be conducted with this in view. By December the process will be completed. We are going to give more importance to te practical side of VHSE courses.

Principal in charge, SV VHS School, Eruthenpathy, Palakkad

Delay in communication from Department, whether Financial Aids will be given to aided school PTCs, No TA provided for conference.

Director: Funds will be provided to Aided PTCs. But the amount should be remitted back after two years. The decision will be carried out soon.

Teacher, GVHSS, Kunnamkulam

Lack of infrastructure, computers not functioning, no facility for library.

Amount has been sanctioned to Career Guidance and Councelling Cell. Rs.2000/- has been given. This can been used for newspapers and other publications.

Principal, Mar Basil VHSS, Senapathy

Withdrawal of Deploma equavalency to VHS students, whether Computer Training is necessary to principals.

Certain changes have to be made in Apprenticeship training. Then only we can think about this. We are providing training facilities. Principals may make use of that.

Principal, Govt VHSS, Thalikkulam

Building construction, soil testing is needed. PTA president says that Rs.30,000/- is needed.

Funds have been sanctioned for construction under XIIth finance Commission Plan for soil testing . If it is a different fund, the Principal is asked to contact the Director.

Teacher, GVHSS, Thodupuzha
PH Regularised hands, Non Vocational Teachers have not been given gazetted rank.

The issue will be solved

Smt.Leena Ravidas, Assistant Director, VHSE Regional Office, Ernakulam proposed vote of thanks.

The meeting was concluded at 2.30 pm




Vocational education in Plus two level was started in the state during the Academic Year 1983-84. At present Vocational Higher Secondary Course is being offered in 389 schools spread across seven Regions in the State with the Directorate of Vocational Education located in Thiruvananthapuram. There are 42 different courses in nine distinct stream, viz Engineering & Technology Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Para Medical Courses Physical Education, Home Science, Humanities and commerce. These Vocational subjects are covered in Part II and Part I includes of English and General Foundation Course. The students of VHSE can also opt for Part III which is purely optional and not a necessity to he eligible for VHS trade certificate. But almost all the students opt for part III which is being offered in four different groups as detailed below.

Group A - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry
Group B - Biology, Physics, Chemistry
Group C - History, Geography, Economics
Group D - Business studies, Accountancy and Management.

Reasons for requirement of on site support in VHSE
1. In general the students join for VHSE course are of compromised academic brilliance. This with curriculum load add to their woes. Hence this system of education require special care and attention. In order to achieve this objective regular monitoring mechanism of teaching activities is a must.
2. There are 261 schools in Government sector and 128 schools in aided sector.. The special rules for recruitment of staff in the Department was promulgated only in 2004. Hence only after 2004, it was possible for the Department to initiate activities for the recruitment of staff in the Government schools. Appointments in various teaching and non teaching posts has started only during the academic year 2007-2008. Even though young energetic and fresh hands has joined the department, there are hardly any experienced hands to lead and expose them in the indicates of teaching learning process in the schools where they join. This also call for a definite and solid support system for these newly recruited teachers.
3. Sense of Achievement is a key factor for the positive development of any profession, and achievements are always relative. Thus a proper opportunity shall be given to the teachers to compare and evaluate themselves with other teachers/ their previous level of achievements in teaching skills which could be consolidated by the appreciation of experts in the field. Hence a viable and satisfactory self evaluation strategy is to be developed with the help of experts in site.

Nuts and Bolts of support system

The above mentioned reasons made the Department to think about an outside support system for the support of Vocational Education in schools. Thus the Department proposes for an “In site Monitoring, support and Self Evaluation (IMSS) help and self Evaluation system to be installed to achieve the objectives of VHSE System for the hemifit of all the stake holders of Vocational Education in Kerala.

The IMSS shall the comprised of eminent teachers of subjects who has proved their competency in the concerned field, (since almost all teachers in the Department are young and the most experienced is 10-15 years we will have to look for retired/ teachers from other sections) experienced and competent tradesmen representations from Industry/Service section. (Public /Private). The tradesmen and representation form Industry/ Service sector can be helpful in the development of skill competency in students and to suggest various different and improved approaches that can be adopted to attain skills in latest technology, so also suggest modifications in Laboratory environment.

The installation of IMSS in the Department will not only improve the quality and self confidence of the teachers, but also improve the infrastructure and modify the approaches for skill development in students. The system will, also improve linkages with the industry/ service sector which in turn will improve the prospects for employment to VHS Trade certificate holders, and the Department in achieving its vision and Mission.


Model Vocational Schools shall be started in all Districts covering all the courses/related courses in Non formal mode offered within the state. Model vocational schools shall also be converted as re-training centers and finishing schools, The vocational pass outs shall be re-trained in these centers to sharpen their skills and for knowledge up gradation with changing needs of the ever chagising industry

E-learning shall also incorporated with interactive CDs/ software along with online programmes through Edusat, internet and other popular Audio visual media.

2.9.1 & 2.9.2

One of the reason for the under achievement in this state is lack of regular teachers in Vocational Schools. The working group report (1998) as per para 1.3.4 of the draft proposal endorses this aspect through their recommendations of “full time teachers should be appointed”. Hence the recommendations for teachers on contract basis and as guest faculty shall be repealed and regular teachers shall be provided with when there are teachers on regular basis, they will be more capable of understating the problems of the pass outs of course enabling the students to pursue the selected vocation, will be more sensible to the changes that are taking place in the industrial/ service sector. More over they will become more competent and semitone to the problems and proposals of the course. So also they can contribute more to the development/ modification of curriculum and improvements in employable skills of students through the experience they gains and as Vocational Teachers. When the teachers are working as guest @Rs.250/- per month as a consolidated pay they will be more concentrating on finding a permanent and secure job.

The model vocational schools shall also be asked to prepare plans for the every coming five year plans after assessing the various proposals of different departments of the Government, to cater the HR requirements that may arise due to the different policies of the Government. So that the state and the country is better equipped to meet the HR demands of future in any industrial/service sector.

On the job Training/ Internship shall be of a reasonably long period so that the student gain enough confidence to act on his own. This period shall be fixed as per the requirements of the course. After the successful completion of OJT a certificate to that effect shall also be given to the student. There shall be some provision for remuneration to the firm at which take up students for OJT, Since their HR and machines/services are directly involved in this activity which would compromise the quantum and quality of out put of the firm. It is highly imperative to compensate this loss.



The teachers tanning shall be done in the concerned industry for enabling and acquainting the teacher in the required skills of the course.


There shall be PTC which can act as incubation centers (techno parks) where vocational course pass out can come and start his own small business venture and gain confidence. He and his endeavor shall be incubated in this centre till he gains enough confident to move out in his own.





Government of Kerala


Department of Vocational Higher Secondary Education
Housing Board Buildings, Santhi Nagar


Introduction Programme for Newly Recruited Teachers is an innovative venture on the part of the Directorate of Vocational Higher Secondary Education. The Primary Objective of this is to help the newly recruited teachers in acquiring some of the basics on vocational education vis-à-vis educational administration.
The Introduction Programme for the Academic Year 20082-2009 was conducted at DIET, Thiruvalla from November 5 through November 7, 2008. It has been understood that the programme was well received by the target group.
As part of its effort to provide written material to the teachers on the objective of vocational education and the Kerala Service Rules, the VHSE Department thought of bringing out a book. And this is the outcome of the effort.
It is hoped that the teachers concerned will make good use of it as a ready reference book.
If paucity of material is noticed in any section in the ensuing pages, the teachers should feel free to bring that to the notice of the Directorate. Appropriate action will be taken as remedial measures.
I would advise the young recruits to peruse this book with the seriousness it deserves and be sure of what is expected of them.

Thiruvananthapuram MOHAN ABRAHAM
21.11.2008 Director, VHSE


• A word to the Teacher 9
• About out Department 11
• About our Duties and Responsibilities 17
• Role of Teachers in Vocational Education 23
• Educational Support System in Vocational Higher Secondary Education 25
• Career Guidance and Counselling 29
• Note on Kerala Service Rules 31
• National Service Scheme 58


Training Of Co-ordinator: T. V Anil Kumar, Regional Assistant Director Phone:9447104088

Time Subject matter Resource person
9.30 am Registration
10.00 am Welcome, course briefing, Ice breaking Training co-ordinator
10.15 am – 11.30 am Vocational Education-vision, mission, objective; VET, future prospects, administrative set-up of the dept.
11.45 am – Role of teacher in Vocational education entrepreneurship, self employment
apprenticeship, industrial linkage, field visit, etc
2 pm – 3.30 pm Vocational Education, national and international perspectives, managing vocational based projects PTC, OJT success stories Shri. SureshC
Agricultural Officer, Open Jail
Neyyattinkara (former co-ordinator of IMG training of VHSE & Voc. Tr.)
3.45 pm to 5 pm Project preparation on PTC (GROUP WORKS) -do -
9.30 am Reporting Day-1
10.00 am – 11. 30 am Introduction to the new approach to the curriculum transaction, theory, innovative teaching methods, learner centered –activity based approach Sri. Viswambaran K. R
DIET, Alappuzha

11.45 am – 1pm Transaction strategies, activities- planning and implementation, introduction to CO’s -do-
2 pm Evaluation CCE, PE, VCE/ IE, TE – monitoring planning the year, moth & day Resource persons- SRG, DRG members of the Department of VHSE
3.45 o 5 pm Preparation of sample questions- presentations, discussion- feedback documentation -do-

9.30 am Reporting Day-2
10 am-11.30 am Presentation of CO’s, sample questions, daily plans feed back and group work in subject wise clusters. Resource persons,SRG, DRG members of the Dept. of VHSE
11.30 am- 1.00 pm Introduction to KSR, KER – Important service rules related to teachers, role of AG Sri. Gopalakrishna Pillai, Govt. Lay Secretary, Retd.
2.00 pm-3.00 pm Career Guidance and Counseling, NSS, various club activities in school, year of efficiency, support systems , academic supervision T V Anilkumar
Assistant Director, ROVHSE

3.15 pm to 5.00 pm Effective relations in work place, behavioral aspects leading to a successful teacher, An introduction to Adolescence psychology, Managing the class of teenagers Dr. R Prakash
Associate Professor
Dept. of Agri. Extension
College of Agriculture, Vellayani


The curriculum is under constant scrutiny and change the teachers therefore should know what to teach an how to teach, and how to evaluate the students because the knowledge, skill, understanding and attitudes appropriate for a young person entering the world of work in the twenty first century is vastly different from those that were considered appropriate even fifteen years ago. The skill competence commitment expected of a young person entering the field of work has changed and what is expected of him/her is quality and efficiency.
As a teacher, you are given clear guidelines about the aims and objectives of teaching and learning related to your subjects. These are based on the documents and syllabus prepared by the Government for the purpose.
Pupils learn in different ways, and different teaching methods could be adopted for different types of materials to be transacted or objectives to be realized. Teaching means organizing experiences and activities which cause pupils to engage actively with the materials and thus help them to learn. Teaching is not telling pupils about the same material they are learning. It is familiarising with a range of ways of structuring and providing them learning experiences. Adopt a suitable method which you consider most suited for the purpose, you can adopt more than one method also.
The chapters are planned and presented with a view to helping you in knowing the theory, practice and assessment. It will help you to devise long term and short term plans for the student’s learning. Based on it, you may design your scheme of work to ensure development of knowledge, skills/ competencies and attitudes in the students. In this task the following questions may be considered
 What are you trying to achieve (aims and objectives for particular lesson)
 What has been taught before
 What most appropriate tasks and learning situations should be planned and given to realize the aims and objectives.
 How much time is available to do the task?
 What material/ human resources are available or needed
 What are the approaches to classroom management
 How is the work to be assessed
 What is to be taught later
 Your planning of the lesson, each learning task should be divided into five key stages
 Preparation
 Beginning
 Facilitating the learning process
 Ending
 Evaluation
Remember that your students like to have a democratic atmosphere in the learning situation where each individual is recognized and considered. Rewards are highly appreciated, like social contact and pleasant interactions with others, including a praise, a smile to recognize an action or achievement or encouraging remarks or a gesture of approval. Token rewards like grades, points, materials rewards and activity towards motivating the learners. To motivate the pupils effectively you should know your pupils so that you can anticipate how they will respond. Motivation is supported by good formative assessment.
Your professional knowledge and judgement will enable you to combine theory with practice and to realize activity based learner centered pedagogy in the class which will raise the competence skill of the learners.
Hope this training programme will be helpful to you in equipping yourself as a better facilitator in developing and moulding the students into self confident personalities, knowledge members of society and excellent citizens of the nation.
Vocationalisation of education at the plus two level was introduced in the country in 1976. it was formally adopted in Kerala at the Higher Secondary Level in the academic year 1983-84. The implementation of vocationalisation got a boost resulting in rapid growth when the centrally sponsored scheme was launched by the Government of India in February 1988.
The aims of the scheme are to avoid forcing students into the academic channel alone, but to enable them to choose subjects in a wide field of knowledge and skills and to provide society with personnel having a wide range of knowledge and training for its own needs and uplift. The main objectives are enhancing individual employability, reducing the mismatch between demand and supply of skilled manpower, and providing an alternative to those who pursue higher education without particular interest or purpose.
At present there are 389 VHS Schools handling 1100 sections of vocational courses in 42 subjects. The sanctioned intake capacity of these schools to various vocational courses is 27500 students per year.
To make available skilled, trained and competent work force at middle level blue collar employment, which will stimulate the economy and lead to increased productivity and faster development.
To fulfil the man power requirement for national development and for social security for citizens through employment

 Initiate action for the modification of recruitment rules of other departments so as to incorporate VHS qualifications
 Explore the possibility of apprenticeship training to all the pass outs.
 Create awareness about the avenues of vocational education at the higher level
 Introduce attractive courses relevant to the present scenario
 Modify the curriculum to cope with the changing trends
 To make available the expertise of the specialized teachers and students for the benefit of the local community
 Conversion of schools into production/service cum training Centres.
 Creation of avenues for On the Job Training (OJT) for confidence building of students
 Awareness campaign for VHS scheme in the feeding schools
 Conduct seminars by incorporation PTA and students on recent technological advancements.
Organisational Structure
DVHSE was set up in 1983 under the General Education sector. The apex body of the VHSE is the Joint Council for Vocational Education.
Directorate of Vocational Higher Secondary Education
A separate Directorate was set up for the efficient implementation of the programme of vocationalisation of education in the State in the Year 1985. The formation of an independent Directorate has accelerated the growth of the scheme.
Director - Sri. Mohan Abraham
Deputy Director (Curriculum) - Sri. M O Pushpendran (in Addl. Charge)
Deputy Director (General) - Sri. M O Pushpendran
Assistant Director (Curriculum) - Sri. K Ajith
Web site address:-
E-mail id:-
Regional offices
For efficient administration and effective control over the schools, three regional offices were started at Kollam, Thrissur and Vadakara in 1989. During 1991-92 another regional office started functioning at Ernakulam. In the Eighth Five Year Plan, the numbers of regional offices were increased at the rate of one office for two revenue districts and accordingly regional offices were established in Chengannur, Kuttippuram and Payyannur. The regional offices and the districts coming under them are listed below.

Regions Districts Asst. Director No. of schools Website/Emailid
Payyannur Kasaragod, Kannur Sri. T H Vijayaraghavan 41

Vadakara Wayanad, Kozhikkode Sri. T H Vijayaraghavan 38

Kuttippuram Palakkad, Malappuram Smt. Ligi Joseph 51

Thrissur Idukki, Thrissur Smt. Geetha T K 52

Ernakulam Ernakulam, Kottayam Dr. Leena Ravidas 54

Chengannur Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta Sri. T V Anilkumar 48

Kollam Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram Smt. Sheeba S 93
Examination wing (e-mail
The VHSE has its own examination wing, where the entire work connected with the examinations is being carried out with utmost care and confidentiality.

Exam Secretary - Smt. Betty Cherian
Technical Officer - Sri. Kurian A John
The Vocational Higher Secondary courses are offered in the existing high schools. The Head of the high school is re-designated as Principal for administrative convenience and he/she holds full charge of the Vocational courses in the school.
There is one full time vocational teacher, one vocational instructor and one laboratory technical assistant for each vocational section. In addition to this, non vocational teachers are also provided for Part III subjects.
Board of examinations
The Board of Vocational Higher Secondary Examinations is constituted with the Director of Vocational Higher Secondary Education as the Chairman, the Deputy Director (Technical Officer) as the Secretary (exams) and the Heads of various Departments as members. The Board responsible for the conduct of the examinations, awarding of moderation, if necessary declaration of results and awarding of certificates. Two examinations are conducted in a year -VHSE public examination and Save a Year Scheme of supplementary examination. The valuation is done in centralized valuation camps and the results are declared in time

Scheme of Studies
Part I English and General Foundation Course
Part III Vocational subjects
Part III Optional subjects (Non Vocational Part Group A, B, C or D)
Physics Physics History Commerce
Chemistry Chemistry Geography Business Studies
Mathematics Biology Economics Accountancy
Pass in Part I and II qualifies the candidate for public services only. Part III is purely optional. Pass in Part I, II and III make the Candidates eligible for higher studies.
Course structure
According to the course content, the 45 vocational disciplines are classified into the following four main course groups:
A Engineering Technology
B Agriculture based, para medical, Animal Husbandry and Home Science courses
C Travel and Tourism
D Business and Commerce
Time Allocation
Sl.No Title of Subject Hours/Week Part
1 English 6 I
2 General Foundation Course 2
3 Vocational Theory 4 II
4 Vocational Practical 13
5 Physics Theory 4 III
6 Physics Practical 13
7 Chemistry Theory 4
8 Chemistry Practical 2
9 Biology Theory 4
10 Biology Practical 2
Total 43

Management and Structure of VHSE
Level Function
i. Policy ii. R & D iii. Admn iv. Exam
Regional BOAT
Institution PRINCIPAL
JCVE - Joint Council for Vocational Education
PSSCIVE - Pandit Sundarlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education
BE - Bureau of Vocational Education
SCVE - State Council for Vocational Education
BOAT - Board of Apprenticeship Training
Awareness about duties and responsibilities makes our activities more dynamic and confident. Hence, our department has a well defined framework for all the staff as detailed below

 The head of institution is the Principal of the VHS School and he/she is the Administrative Head of the VHS Section.
 He performs all duties and responsibilities assigned by the Regional Assistant Director/the Secretary or the Director of the VHSE from time to time.
 He/She deals with all the administrative, financial and establishment matters. He is solely responsible for all communications to the superiors and the subordinates.
 He/She is responsible for controlling the functions of the PTA, the PTC , the OJT programmes, various clubs etc
 He/She has to take a lead role in planning and implementation of schemes for the strengthening and development of the VHSE
 He/She controls and supervises the examinations and related matters, being the Chief Officer
 He/She is responsible for maintaining discipline among the staff of VHS Section.
 He/She is to ensure the availability of infrastructure facilities in the school
 He/She is the stock verifying officer
 He/She assigns duty to the lab assistant for the smooth conduct of the practicals in Vocational and Non Vocational labs.
 He/She has to ensure the participation of the staff under his/her control in all the training programmes offered by various agencies as per the request.
 He/She has to conduct personality development programmes, career guidance and counseling, placement, etc to all the VHSE students
 He/She has to ensure full utilization of the library by the students and the teachers.
 He/She has to ensure that the subordinate staff under his/her control exercise their duties and responsibilities for imparting quality education to the vhse students.
The teaching staff of the VHS sections have to be advised/guided to effectively plan and execute all curricular, co-curricular and extra curricular activities so as to impart quality education
 He/She has to work to inculcate in the students values and standards and foster mutual respect and respect for others
 He/She should actively participate in the activities of career guidance, remedial coaching, clubs etc
 He/She is also responsible for conducting awareness programmes for the general public, guardians, students etc
 He/She has to work for the formation for an Alumni Association
 He/She should ensure the utilization for library facilities by the students.
 The Academic Head should supervise the academic activities of the Vocational Higher Secondary Education.
 He/She should prepare the time table for theory and practical classes
 He/She has to issue necessary instructions regarding the maintenance of registers for IAM, CE, VCE etc
 He/She is the custodian of students attendance registers
 He/She has to maintain and ensure strict discipline among the VHS students.
 He/She is to verify registers like Class Log, Daily Plan, etc periodically or as directed by the department
 He/She should submit the consolidated requisition for lab items to the head of the institution.
 He/She will convene period meetings of the PTA, the class PTA and staff council, and plan such activities for the smooth functioning of curricular, co-curricular and extra curricular activities.
 He/She has to ensure that the classes function as per the time table, syllabus and the scheme of study.
 He/She has to report the insufficiency of infrastructure facilities, if any to the Principal in time
 He/She will have to conduct athletic meet, youth festival, trade fair etc. in time
 He/She is to ensure proper functioning of the PTC, the OJT effectively in the school
 He/She has to monitor the portions to be covered in time as per source materials.
In addition to the responsibility as teacher, the vocational teacher has to perform the following duties:-
 Assessment of the requirements of the vocational lab
 Identification of Centres for OJT
 Controlling the production aspects of the PTC
 To give awareness to the students about the VHS Schemes including apprenticeship scheme, self employment opportunities etc
In addition to the responsibility as a Teacher, the Non Vocational Teacher has to perform the following duties.
 He/She will be incharge of non vocational lab concerned
 He/She will be the custodian of the stock registers of the lab concerned
 He/She will have to report the requirements of the lab concerned to the Academic Head Periodically
 He/She will have to assist the Academic Head in every aspect
 He/She will have to extend awareness for the vertical mobility and also to provide entrance coaching etc wherever required
In addition to the teaching responsibility, the GFC teacher has to perform the following duties
 He/She will be responsible for the management aspects of PTC except production
 He/She has to maintain the accounts of the PTC and will be the custodian of all the registers of the PTC.
 He/She will have to make necessary arrangements for the conduct of the OJT, field visits, study tour, etc in consultation with the Vocational Teacher and Academic Head. He will have to conduct entrepreneurship development programmes in order to equip the students as future entrepreneurs.
 He/She will have to organize other vocational programmes, talks, lectures, seminars, group discussion, case study etc for the exposure of the students to various aspects of self-enrichment.
 He/She will be responsible for organizing and reporting various club activities.
 Vocational Instructor
 He/She will be in charge of the vocational lab concerned
 He/She will be the custodian of the stock registers of the vocational lab concerned
 He/She will have to report the requirements of lab to the Vocational Teacher concerned
 He/She is responsible for the smooth conduct of the vocational practicals as per the syllabus under the supervision of the Vocational Teacher.
 He/She has to assist the Vocational Teacher in production aspects of the PTC, the conduct of the OJT etc.
 He/She should attend all the laboratory works as instructed by the Principal for the smooth functioning of the VHSE courses.
 He/She should make all arrangements for the conduct of practicals as per the instruction of the teacher concerned
 He/She should maintain the labs properly and neatly
 He/She has to assist the teacher in the production aspects of PTC and in the smooth conduct of OJT and other academic activities.
 He/She will be under the Head of the Institution/Office
 He/She should attend all the clerical duties of the VHS courses and other works allotted by the Head of Institution/Office/A.H
 He/She is the custodian of the stock register of library books
 He /She should ensure that library books are issued to the student/ teachers on demand
 He/She will also maintain an issue-register in this regard
 He/She should have a good linkage with the teaching staff of the VHS section and the Head of Institution
 He/She will work for the overall development of the VHS courses
 He/She should collect and keep all data related to the VHSE and submit them in time on demand
 He/She will be under the head of the institution/office
 He/She will have the responsibility to assist the Principal, the clerk and other staff of the VHS Section in administrative and academic matters
 He/She has to attend treasury duties assigned by the Principal in accordance with the existing rules and regulations
 He/She will have the responsibility to open and close the office, class rooms etc, as per the instruction of the head of the institution or office
 He /She should perform all other duties assigned by the Principal
Apart from the duties and responsibilities noted above, all the VHS staff including the Principal should follow the instructions and other guidelines issued by the higher authorities from time to time. Moreover, the staff of the VHSE should have awareness about the Vision and Mission of the Vocational Higher Secondary Education in Kerala.


The teacher is the most crucial input in the total scheme of Vocationalisation of education who ultimately interprets and implements the educational policy in actual class room situation. Traditionally, teachers have enjoyed a position of great respect in our country. The religious leaders and social reformers have been addressed as teachers of the people. The Teachers in Vocational education are qualified and competent persons who have an indispensable role in extension and social service.

The present system of education is mostly individual central. A child is brought up intentionally for his own development and the social aspect of his education is largely neglected. The result is that after a lapse of 15 or 20 years of general and higher education, the youth enters society without any social commitment and responsibility. In the long run, such attitude may become detrimental to his existence itself. Upon proper motivation and cultivating a positive attitude and spirit of community service, by imparting suitable vocational skill, they can be moulded into excellent citizens leading to national development

The report of the working group for the revision of centrally sponsored scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education (NCERT 1998) states that the national goal of vocational education is to fulfil the manpower requirement for sustainable national development and social requirement for employment. The major task before the teacher in vocational education is to prepare vocationally competent persons through need based, appropriate and adequate education and professionally sound training programme who can ensure production of goods and services of the highest quality and standards to maintain economic stability in a globalised market economy.

Unemployment and social unrest among the youth and school leavers is commonly attributed to lack of linkages between formal schooling and occupations in developing countries It is believed that introducing a vocational element in school curriculum especially in developing countries is conducive to economic development.

The teachers in vocational education must take a leading role in linking his institution with the various related agencies in and around. engaged in the course related activities. This may include small scale industries, self employment units, self help groups, service sectors like hospitals, automobile workshops, mechanical units, electrical and electronic units, computer firms, agriculture farm, fish farm, coconut expeller units, production units like garment units, food processing units, building construction, tourism, photography etc.

The teachers in vocational education have to disseminate their basic and acquired knowledge in their respective fields for promoting the related sectors of the society. They can develop and popularise research findings and devices of talented teachers in fields like energy saving, water conservation, recycling and waste management, organic farming, time management, local level marketing etc., which ultimately lead to the prosperity of community.

The teacher should inculcate entrepreneurial qualities in the students. Vocational guidance and counseling offered by the teacher definitely assists in their search for job opportunities. Another quality that can be developed in students is earn while learning which generates income to the students by engaging in establishments or through production cum training centres attached to the schools, developing vocational skill, reducing unemployment, developing entrepreneurial quality, meeting required manpower needs of society and developing service mindedness eventually paving the way for National Development.
The system of vocational education in Kerala also ensures an academic vertical mobility to the pass outs by means of its equivalence to the academic higher secondary education. This is through the optional study of the part III subjects which are named as non vocational subjects. In short, the teacher in vocational educational in our State has a dual role of equipping the student both for the direct entry in the Vocational field for the higher studies in academic front.
“Education is not a commodity that could be dispatched by post and delivered through the teachers, it is something deep-rooted in the socio-cultural background of the student and enriched through the interaction of the teachers, fellow- students and Society”

Information regarding the Student Support Systems introduced by our Department will help you understand and implement these activities in an effective manner.


On-the-Job Training (OJT), which is an integral component of Vocational Education, refers to that component of vocational curriculum which takes place in a real job situation under the supervision of an expert in-plant supervision or master craftsman, aiming at the development of proficiency and self confidence

On-the-Job Training programme is designed to supplement in-school instruction by providing the dimension of practical training in a realistic work situation, under the guidance and supervision of a practicing and skilled supervisor.

Concept of On-the-Job Training

1. It is planned and organized work experience. A programme of OJT is planned by the educational institution and the training is given in an established or organized industry or work spot
2. It helps the student to assimilate the theory, which was learnt in the classroom and practises it at the actual work spot by following part of the curriculum of each vocational course.
3. It gives the student a supervised experience. This facilitates the student to attain mastery on the work by observation and working, supervised by a master craftsman.
4. Generally, the theory subjects taught within the classroom and laboratory give little scope of exposure to the student to the real work situation. But the OJT provided to the student enables him to feel the implications and intricacies during the work.
5. It gives an opportunity to the student to participate in the actual production of goods and services, which leads to the securing of gainful employment. The student gets motivated by actual participation in the production of goods and services at the time of learning or training and develops self-confidence.
6. It prepares the student psychologically in developing entrepreneurship qualities, so that he is in a position to take up self-employment.
7. It helps in continuous evaluation of the students' work and knowledge since an expert workman and the teacher guide at the work spot supervise it.
8. The major advantage of the on the job training is that since it is being provided in the organization or industry, which uses the latest technology and equipment, the student is exposed to these technology and equipment, which are not available in the school. This helps the student to get adjusted and acquainted to the working of latest machinery so that he can join similar job after the completion of the course with greater ease.
9. The student who undergoes on the job training gets an opportunity to identify with the actual work field, which helps him to rectify the defects by watching the other trainees and taking instructions from the expert supervisor.
10. It leads to increased production of goods and services to the employer at less cost since the trainees who actually do the work are not paid. This encourages the employer to arrange on the job training in his industry or organisation
11. On the job training is conceptually a mutual benefit programme for both the trainee and the employer.
• Develop the innovative and technical skills of the students in a creative way
• Exposure to Real life - Tasks and situations
• Application of the learnt theory into an efficient output
• Development of Team spirit and leadership qualities
• Ability to develop individuality
Centers for the OJT programme may be a reputed industrial or production or training or service units related to the vocational subject. We may use the service of four or five centers to provide training to all the students of a school. The selected centers may have the facilities like:
1. Live training and demonstration with skilled /experienced hands
2. Lecture session by the experts
3. Provision to supply materials and consumables to the trainees
4. Provision to handle tools and instruments to the trainees
5. Trained lady faculties for the supervision of girls
6. Provision for evaluation of the students
7. Issue of certificates for those who have completed OJT successfully


PTC may be considered a methodology of providing an educational experience which links the world of work with the teaching, learning process, so that students not gain can only relevant skills and attitudes but also the necessary hands on experience to use skills in producing goods and services.
• To achieve two major objectives of education
• Relevant to individual and social needs
• Organization of the learning experience efficiently and effectively
• To provide an opportunity to the students to apply their knowledge and information gained from the class room and laboratories
• To develop necessary skills, competencies and attitudes amongst students for meeting the challenges the world of work.
• To develop entrepreneurial skills through experience in determining the requirements of the neighborhood and producing them through suitable economical and profitable activities
• To provide educational experience relevant to business and industry in the areas.
• To develop an attitude amongst the students to find out self-employment after the completion of their studies and to enhance self support capabilities.
• To make the students more confident in their fields.
• To achieve national goals of development in an optimum manner
• To make the education of process more efficient and cost effective.
• To develop the spirit of social accountability in educational institutions.
• To provide chances to the students for developing innovative ideas.
• To generate resources for the institute so that more upgraded education and training is made available without necessarily depending upon external funding.
• Locate/Find out a building/rooms for PTC (Utilization of existing building/room will be economical)
• Take a decision regarding the goods and services to be produced in the PTC and the scope of its marketing after visiting two or three industrial units/business centers/service centers which produce/provide similar type of goods and services.
• Assess the requirements of the PTC and prepare a budget accordingly
• 50% of the fund required may be raised using the following methods.
1. Loan from PTA/School Fund/Staff Council
2. Advance from the customers
3. Loan from commercial/Co-operative banks under priority sector lending scheme
4. Project based State Government funding scheme
• floating shares collect 50% of the fund.
1. Fix the value of each share on the basis of total fund required and total number of shares proposed to be floated.
2. Each student should purchase at least one share. The students should surrender their shares at the end of course of study.
3. PTA/Staff Council/Teachers/Guardians and others., can also purchase shares.


• Teacher in GFC may be appointed as the Manager of PTC.
• The Manager can take decisions and execute the same in consultation and with the consent with the Vocational Teacher concerned.
• A Committee should be constituted under the chairmanship of the Principal
• Manager of the PTC will be the convener of the committee.
• PTA President, concerned Vocational Teacher, A representative of VHS staff, a representative of the students and The Manager of Aided school will be the members of the committee.


• Open a retail outlet in the school
• Door to door sales
• Conduct ‘sales fare’ during festival seasons.
• Open stalls at various places at the time of celebrations and cultural festivals
• Sales through the commercial shops/ Margin Free shops etc.
Career guidance and counselling programs aim at helping students more to be informed and giving better educational and career choices. Among other things, the programs offer information on higher courses, career options, the type of academic and occupational training needed to succeed in the workplace, and postsecondary opportunities that are associated with their field of interest. Programs also often provide teachers, administrators, and parents with information they can use to support students' career exploration and postsecondary educational opportunities.
Activities associated with career guidance and counseling programs typically include:
• Advising students and parents on VHS School programs and academic curriculum, preparing them for higher education application and admission.
• Creating awareness about the industrial linkages and entrepreneurship opportunities.
• Arranging dual/concurrent enrollment and Advanced Placement credits to prepare students for the rigour of postsecondary education.
• Planning and preparation for professional course admissions and Entrance tests
• Informing students about postsecondary financing that can be used to support advanced education and training.
• Developing career portfolios, which include test and grades results, examples of student work, and resumes and cover letters to prospective employers.
• Arranging job shadowing, work placements, and community-based learning programs to allow students to directly experience workplace situations.
• Sponsoring workshops, classes, focus groups, and special presentations that focus on job skills and personal development.
• Providing specialized counseling and intervention services to provide students with individualized attention.
Recognizing the importance of career guidance and counseling programs for student's postsecondary success, the Department is implementing a number of activities at school, regional and State levels.

• Career Guidance & Counseling centers are furnishing in all VHS Schools and qualified, efficient and aptitude are engaged as carrier master.

• Facilities for the functioning of CGCC shall be provided.

• Articles, publications, magazines related to the Career guidance and counseling shall be made available in the center. These shall be procured by utilizing the PTA fund.
• Awareness programmes for guardians may also be conducted frequently

• Conduct workshops for development of personality & communication skill of the student

• Take necessary measures for creating awareness in the feeding schools.

• Monthly report of the activities related to Career guidance and counseling centers should be sent to the Directorate and the regional offices

I. Introduction
The Kerala Service Rules were issued by the Governor of Kerala under the powers conferred on him by the proviso to Article 309 of the Constitution of India, and published under Notification No. Fin/CR.57702/59 dated 10th November 1959 in the Kerala Gazetted Extraordinary No. 67 dated 12th November 1959. Later, on 17th September 1068, Kerala Legislative Assembly passed the Public Service Act-19 for the conditions of Service of Government Employees and since then the Kerala Service Rules have been governed by that Act.
KSRs are divided into three parts
Part I Rules 1 to 159 - General conditions of service and rules on Pay, Leave Joining Time and Foreign Service
Part II Rules 1 to 116 - Travelling Allowance Rules, and
Part III Rules 1 to 151 - Pension Rules
Rules under Parts I and II are given effect from 1.11.1999 and those in part III from
1-11-1956. The present Pension Rules, viz., Simplified Pension Rules, are in force from
II. Powers reserved by the Government
1. To decide whether the rules are applicable to a particular person
2. To dispense with or relax the requirements of any rule in an individual case
3. To make any rule
4. To regulate the terms and conditions for the grant of compensatory allowances from time to time.
5. To determine the standard rent of Government buildings to be recovered from occupants
6. To remit leave salary contribution or pension contribution in respect of an officer transferred to Foreign Service.
7. To permit an Officer on foreign service to receive pension or gratuity from the foreign employer
8. To modify the rules and to give final interpretation in case of doubt (R. 4, 7, 9 & 11)
9. To grant Leave without Allowance in excess of 120 days, R-64
10. To grant study Leave-R-99-App. VI
11. To grant leave for study purpose under rules in Appendix XII B
12. To grant LWA for taking up other employment in the Country or abroad as per Appendix XII A and for meeting spouse under rules in Appendix XII C.
13. To cancel unavailed portion of leave granted under App. XII A or XII B or XII C
14. To send a person on foreign service-R 140 (b)
15. To re-employ a person discharged on pension or gratuity. R 92 P III
16. To grant Family Pension to the parents of a deceased government servant/deceased pensioner – R 90 (6A) 5 P III.
III. General Conditions of Service
A. Punctuality (R13 & 14)
1. No person may be appointed to a post in Government Service without his producing a Medical Certificate of health (R.13). But the Government may dispense with production of Medical Certificate in individual cases and exempt any specified class of officers from the operation of this rule. The five categories of persons exempted (Note 3 to R 13)
i. An officer recruited through a competitive examination who had to undergo a medical examination in accordance with regulations prescribed for appointment to service under Government.
ii. an officer in service other than the Last Grade appointed in a temporary vacancy of less than six months duration
iii. an officer in the Last Grade appointed in a temporary vacancy of less than 12 months duration.
iv. a temporary officer who has already been medically examined in one office, if transferred to another office without a break in service subject to the provision of note 2 to R 13.
v. a retired officer reemployed immediately after retirement.
2. The whole time of a Government Servant is at the disposal of the Government R 14.
3. Every officer must attend his office punctually. For every three late attendance, each upto one hour, without permission the person will forfeit a day’s casual leave. Leave attendance without permission for less than three days at the end of a calendar year will be ignored. If there is no casual leave to be forfeited, disciplinary action may be taken against the person concerned. (notes 1-2 to R.14).
Comment Questions
a. A person, who is appointed in the last grade category in a temporary vacancy for a period of 9 months, has not been admitted to duty for want of Certificate of his health. (See sub rule 3 under note 3 to R 13 – action irregular)
b. A Lower Division Clerk put in 2 years service in the Police Department has not brought with him certificate of his health when he reported for joining duty as Assistant Grade II in the Government Secretariat
c. As there was no casual leave at the credit of an upper division clerk, it was ordered to forfeit one EL for his three late attendance (See note 2 to R 14-CL along shall be forfeited, action incorrect)
d. It was ordered by a Head of Office to bring forward 2 late attendance of a clerk in his office, to the next year since there was no casual leave at the credit of the clerk at the end of that calendar year. (See note 1 to R 13;CL less than 3 days at the end of a calendar year will be ignored ; action not correct)
B. Lien (R.15-18)
1. Lien is the title to hold a permanent post substantively R.12(18)
2. Two or more persons cannot be appointed substantively to the same permanent post at a time R. 15(a)
3. One person cannot hold lien in more than one post at a time R.15(a)
4. An officer cannot be appointed on permanent basis to a post on which another person has a lien R.15©
5. An officer ceases to hold lien previously acquired, when he acquires lien in a second post. R 16.
6. Lien once acquired will remain
a. while performing duty in that post
b. while on foreign service
c. while on leave
d. while holding a temporary or officiating post
e. during joining time unless the transfer is on an appointment on substantive basis.
f. while under suspension and
g. while undergoing training R 17
7. Government may suspend the lien
i. when a permanent officer is appointed on substantive basis to a post in another cadre.
ii. when an officer having lien is appointed on substantive basis to a higher post in the regular line of promotion.
iii. when an officer having lien is appointed permanently to a post where another person has suspended lien R 18.
IV. Increment (R 31 to 33 & 37 B)
1. An annual increment is a rise to basic pay granted once in 12 months
2. From 1.4.1974 increment is granted from the first day of a month in which it falls due R 31
3. Increment accruing consequent on declaration of probation shall be drawn only with effect from the date of completion of probation, but subsequent increments shall be drawn on the first day of month in which they fall due. (GD 2 to R 31 and 37 B0
4. When an efficiency bar is prescribed in a time scale of pay, the increment next above the bear shall not be given without the specific sanction of the competent authority. R 32.
5. Following are reckoned as qualifying services for the grant of an increment R 33
a. All duty periods in a post on a time scale.
b. Services in another post with the same pay on the same/ identical time scale.
c. Period of deputation
d. Period of leave including LWA on MC and LWA upto 60 days without MC in continuation of maternity leave
e. Period of in-service training
f. Period of joining time
g. Period of suspension treated as duty
h. Period of dies-non
i. Previous service when reappointed after thrown out for want of vacancy in the same post or another post carrying the same/identical time scale of pay.

6. Periods not counted for granting increment
a. LWA taken by teachers for completion of training courses such as B.Ed Hindi Teacher’s Training, Language Teacher’s Training and TTC (G.O. (P) 217/05/Fin dated 11.5.05.
b. Provisional service regularized on or after 1.10.04
c. Period of suspension not treated as duty, or that treated as LWA
d. LWA without MC beyond 60 days in continuation of maternity leave
e. Previous service if re-employed after resignation, removal or dismissal and period of permanent withholding of increment.
f. Service in a lower post.
g. Officiating service in a higher post, if not certified, “would have continued in the lower post, but for promotion.’’
h. Period of training, if pay of officiating Post is not drawn during that training.
Suspension and Subsistence Allowance R 55
C. An officer under suspension is eligible for subsistence allowance as detailed below
i. An amount equal to half pay leave salary as if the person is on HPL instead of suspension.
ii. DA admissible to the above
iii. Any other compensatory allowance received by the person at the time of suspension (Restricted to 120 days)
iv. Special allowance as per Rule 93
Note: Reduced rate of subsistence allowance from 2nd year onwards contemplated in the rule has been cancelled vide G.O. (P) 330/97/Fin dated 6.3.1997.

D. Compulsory deductions from subsistence allowance (note 2 (a) U/R 55)
a. Income tax and Super tax
b. House rent and allied charges
c. Repayment of loans and advances taken from Government
d. Recoveries due to co-operative societies &
e. Subscriptions to FBS and GIS
E. Optional deductions from subsistence allowance 9Note 2(b) U/R 55)
a. Premia due to SLI and PLI
b. Refund of advances taken from GPF. (Written consent is compulsory)
F. Deductions not be made (note 2 (c) U/R 55)
a. Subscription to GPF
b. Court attachment
c. Recovery of loss sustained to Government
V. Leave
Leave means permitted absence from duty
A. General Conditions
1. The Government are the Sanctioning Authorities for the grant of leave without allowance exceeding 4 months at a time. Study leave (R.99-App.VI), LWA for study purpose (R.110 C-app.XII B), LWA for taking up other employment (R.110B-App.XII A) and LWa for joining spouse (R.110D-App.XIIC). All other kinds of leave are sanctioned by the competent departmental authorities R. 64.
2. Leave cannot be claimed as a right. In exigencies of service, the sanctioning authority may at his discretion, refuse or revoke the leave of any description. R 65.
3. The nature of the leave due and applied for by an officer cannot be altered at the option of the sanctioning authority. Note under R. 65
4. Holidays and restricted holidays can be prefixed or suffixed to leave. R 68 read with Note 1 below it.
5. An officer when entered on leave on MC may be allowed to join duty after producing Medical Certificate of fitness. Note 2 to R 68
6. Any kind of leave other than LWA under App. XIIA, XII B, and XII C may be combined with.
7. Vacation may be availed in combination with or in continuation of any kind of leave R.74.
8. The maximum amount of leave, in combination or otherwise, granted at a time shall not exceed 5 years R 24.
9. LWA under App XII A and XII C shall not be granted exceeding 5 years at a time. On expiry of that, further extension may be considered R. 24 A.
10. Any kind of leave, except EL, can be commuted into any other kind of leave (R 76 and 89). EL sanctioned to join spouse can be retrospectively commuted into LWA under App XII C
11. An officer on leave may not return to duty before expiry of leave unless he is permitted to do so (R.72)
12. An officer on leave should intimate sufficiently early his intention of joining duty after the leave, enabling to issue posting orders in time R. 124.
B. Classification of leave
Leave is classified into ordinary leave and special leave
1. Ordinary Leave This is the leave earned by a Government Servant in proportion to his/her duty or service. A leave account is maintained. Every leave except LWA availed shall be debited against the leave at credit. Earned leave, Half Pay leave, Commuted Leave, Leave Not due, and LWA are coming under this category.
2. Special Leave This is the leave granted to a particular person in a special circumstance. No leave account is necessary.
3. Disability leave, study leave, Maternity leave and Hospital leave are the four types of special leave.
C. Five kinds of Ordinary leave.
1. Earned Leave R 78, 79, 86 and 87
All permanent employees are earning EL at the rate of one day for every eleven days on duty. Non permanent employees are earning this leave at the rate of one day for every 22 days on duty for the first year and after @ 1/11. When the person is confirmed in that cadre, he EL calculated @ 1.22 will be regularized @ 1/11.
The maximum amount of EL that can be at credit at a time shall not be in excess of 300 days with effect from 1.11.1998. Prior to that it was 240 days. The maximum amount of EL that can be granted at a time shall not be in excess of 180 days. But, in the case of leave preparatory to retirement, it can be granted up to 300 days.
EL Salary
Full pay, if the person had been on duty plus Darness Allowance to that pay plus compensatory allowances ad admissible (no HRA if occupying Government Quarters) plus special pay as admissible. If promoted during EL, monetary benefit of promotion shall be granted only from the date on which charge is assumed. (See Rules 92 & 93)
2. Earned leave for those persons enjoying vacations R.80, 81 and 86
i. Those persons who are eligible for regular vacations are not eligible for EL, if they are enjoying full vacation. But, if they are prevented from enjoying vacation in full they will earn EL under formula n/v X 30, where ‘n’ represents the number of days prevented from enjoying and ‘v’ total period of vacation.
ii. If in any year (actual duty period of 12 months and not calendar year) an employee is not enjoying the vacation, EL is earned for that year @ 1/11.
iii. Teaching staff attending valuation and tabulation work of SSLC and HSC Public examinations during vacation shall be considered to have been prevented from enjoying full vacation and they earn EL at proportionate rate as per R 81.
3. Half pay leave R 82 and 83
This leave is earned at 2o days for each completed year of service. HPL is granted either on private affairs or on Medical Certificate.
Completed year of service includes period spent on duty periods of leave including LWA, periods of suspension treated as duty/leave and dies non. LWA awailed for other employment under APP. XII A, LWa for joining spoounse under App.XII C, LWA for study purpose under APP. XII B and LWa specially ordered not to count for service benefits are not earning HPL.
HPL is not earned for fraction of a year. It is granted without any limit.
Half Pay Leave salary R 93
Leave salary will be equal to half of the pay, the officer would get, had he been on duty during the period of leave. It includes an increment that falls due during the period of HPL. When an officer is promoted during the HPL, the monetary benefit of promotion shall be granted only from the date on which he assumes charge of the post, if there is change of duties. Dearness allwances during HPL will be based on leave salary actually drawn. But in the case of NCCs, whose pay before proceeding on leave does not exceed Rs. 6500 with effect from 1.3.1997, in the revised scale of pay, the DA will be what would have been admissible to him had he performed duty i.e., full DA. In such cases, leave salary and DA shall not be less than 65% of the amount of pay and DA while on duty.
4. Commuted Leave R 84 and 86 A
This is a conversion of HPL into full pay leave. Twice the amount of HPL will be debited for each commuted leave. All permanent employees and those who have completed three years of continuous service are eligible for this leave. No MC is necessary for the grant of this leave from 23.12.1982.
Leave Salary will be twice the amount of pay admissible on HPL and DA to that amount R 94.
5. Leave not due R 85
This is HPL granted in advance. Only permanent employees are eligible to avail this leave. This is granted only when no other leave is at credit and the Leave sanctioning Authority is satisfied that there is reasonable prospect of the employee returning to duty on the expiry of this leave and earning an equal amount of HPl thereafter for adjusting the leave granted. During the entire service, the maximum amount of LND should not exceed 360 days out of which 180 days may be granted without MC and it should not exceed 90 days at a time. The remaining 180 days should be on medical certificate.
6. Leave Without Allowance/Extra Ordinary Leave R 64, 86A and 88
This leave is granted to an officer in regular employment, when there is no other leave at credit or there is leave at credit, but applies for LWA. Non-permanent employees with less than 3 years service are eligible to LWA up to 3 months at a time. This is granted on MC or other wise. This is also granted
i. for regularizing the period of suspension R.88(ii)
ii. for treatment of TB, cancer or mental disease R.90
iii. for obtaining superior qualification R 91.
iv. For taking up other employment App XIIA or for joining with spouse under App. XII C
v. For study purpose APP XII B
Period of LWA exceeding 4 months requires the sanction of Government. R. 64

D. Four kinds of Special Leave
1. Disability Leave R 97
This leave is granted to an officer who is disabled by injury intentionally inflicted or cause in or in consequence of due performance of his official duties or in consequence of his official position. It shall not be granted unless the disability manifests itself within three months of the occurrence to which it is attributed and the person disabled acts with due promptitude in bringing it to the notice of the sanctioning authority with the support of MC.
The maximum period if 24 months for one disability
This can be combined with other kind of leave.
Leave Salary – For the first 4 months at the rate of EL salary and for the remaining period at the rate for HPL R 104.
2. Study Leave R99-App VI
This is granted to officers who are selected by the Government to undergo a course of study in the interest of the government
Officers having a service of 5 years or more and not due to retire from service within three years after the leave, are eligible for this leave
The maximum amount of this leave that can be granted ordinarily will be 12 months. Which shall not exceed 24 months in exceptional circumstances and in all during the entire service.
Study leave can be combined with other kinds of leave, but the total duration of absence shall not be in excess of 28 months, and the other leave combined with it shall not be reckoned as study leave.
Leave salary admissible will be equal to that for HPL excluding DA. This leave is also called Extra Ordinary Half Pay Leave.

3. Maternity leave R 100, 101 and 102
From 25.11.1998 this leave is granted to female Government Servants on full pay for a maximum period of 135 days R. 100
This is also granted in the case of miscarriage including abortion for a period not exceeding six weeks R 101.
This leave an be combined with any other kind of leave and MC is not necessary for such leave not exceeding 60 days in continuation. LWA without MC upto 60 days will be counted for granting increment. R 102. Leave Salary as admissible for EL under R 92
4. Hospital Leave R 103
This leave is granted to the categories of Government Servants specified under the rle while under medical treatment for illness of injury, if such illness or injury is directly due to risks incurred in the course of their official duties.
This is granted for treatment either at hospital or at home
The duration will be as suggested by the attending Medical Officer
Leave salary as for Disability leave (R104)
5. Comment on the following:-
a. On 1.7.2004 an officer requested for converting 30 days EL availed of by him in April 2004 into HPL (See R 76 and 89 EL shall not be commuted. Hence irregular)
b. A Permanent Officer who is due to retire on superannuation on 1.8.2003 has applied for 40 days Leave Not due from 1.3.2003 as there was no EL or HPL at his credit. Considering his ability and devotion, it was granted (See R 85 cannot earn HPL. Hence irregular)
c. An Officer not in permanent employ has applied for 20 days EL on completion for 200 days duty. It was granted after satisfying the purpose for which it was applied (See R 86 will earn EL at 1/22. Hence irregular)
d. An officer applied for 15 days EL, which was admissible. But as the leave sanctioning authority wanted to punish for his frequent absence, LWA for 15 days was sanctioned to him (See note under R 65 Action irregular)
e. A temporary clerk who had put in 2 years service was granted LWA for 5 months (See R 88(ii) and 88 A LWA upto 3 months can be granted. Hence irregular)
f. A clerk in the office of the City Police Commissioner, Tvm met with a scooter accident and one of his legs was fractured. He was granted hospital leave for 4 months. (See R 103 is not eligible to hospital leave, and that leave is granted while undergoing medical treatment for illness or injury, if such illness or injury is directly due to the risk incurred in the course of official duty. Hence, also the above action is irregular.
g. Commuted leave for 15 days is granted to an officiating clerk who has put in 2 years service. (See R. 86 A CML can be granted only to permanent officers and officers having 3 years continuous service. Hence irregular)
h. Study leave and HPL were sanctioned in combination for a period of 30 months. (See APP IV-4. Maximum period of the combined leave shall not exceed 38 months. Hence not correct)
i. EL and LWA were sanctioned as leave for study purpose to a clerk for technical course of study in a polytechnic. (See note 2 to R 91 sanction irregular)
j. The balance of EL of a full time teacher at the time of his appointment to a part-time post was allowed to be surrendered. (See ruling to R.86, the action is irregular. When a full time teacher is appointed to a part-time post, the EL at credit can be granted only when he is reappointed in the full time post)
E. So me other Leave
1. Commutation of Leave R. 76 and 89
This is conversion of one kind of leave into another kind with retrospective effect, provided EL shall not be commuted into leave of a different kind except the EL for meeting spouse as provided in Note. 1 of Appendix XII C
Commutation of one kind of leave into another kind automatically carries with it the drawal of arrears of leave salary or recovery of amounts overdrawn.
2. Leave for obtaining superior qualifications-R91
Officers with a continuous officiating or temporary service of 2 years or more, will be granted, in addition to any leave to which they are eligible, leave under this rule for obtaining superior qualifications like BA, BL etc. But this 2 year service is not insisted upon in the case of employees belonging to SCs/STs. Such leave will not be given for broken periods, but will cover the entire period of the course concerned. Extension of leave will be granted to cover the further period required for the completion of the study.
‘Superior qualifications’ mentioned above are intended to enhance the usefulness of the Government servant concerned as a member of the service or will improve his prospects in the service of which he is a member.
In Circular No. 24780/R4/99 dated 22.4.1999, it has been directed by Government, to specify in the leave sanctioning order under R 88 & 91 whether the LWA so granted will count for service and retirement benefit.
Leave under R 91 can be granted by the authority competent to sanction eligible leave and LWA.
3. Leave to officers appointed for limited periods and provisional employees
Where the appointment is for one year or less, earned leave on full pay calculated at 1/11 of the period spent on duty may be granted subject to a maximum of 15 days on MC. If there is no EL at credit, HPL upto 15 days on MC, subject to the condition that the leave period of the two kinds does not exceed one month in the term of service of the concerned. If the officer serves in the vacation department, EL is not admissible. If absolutely necessary, HPL on MC, not exceeding 1/11 of the time spent on duty, subject to a maximum of 15 days during the terms of service. (See G O (P) 740/70 Fin dated 20.11.1970 and Appendix VIII).
The leave of provisional, recruits shall be regulated by Appendix VIII. (See G O (P) 216/05/Fin dated 11.5.05.
4. Leave for Full Time Contingent Employees
Permanent FTC employees are eligible for EL and HPL as regular employees. LWA as admissible to regular employees, if they have completed 3 years continuous service, and to those with less than 3 years service, the duration of such leave shall not exceed 3 months at a time.
5. Leave for Part Time Contingent Employees
EL is earned at 1/22 of duty. EL to be granted in a year shall not exceed 15 days. Maximum EL at credit shall not be in excess of 120 days. EL at credit when promoted shall be carried over. (See G.O.(P) 523/92 Fin dated 4.9.92). 20 days EL can be surrender in a year. Terminal surrender of EL upto 120 days is allowed. (Se G O (P) 151/92 Fin dated 3.2.1992 and G O (P) 324/04/Fin dated 12.7.04) LWA under special circumstances for a maximum period of 20 days in a calendar year, maternity leave for 3 months, and leave of miscarriage or abortion for six weeks, are also admissible.
VI. Joining Time R 125-138
A. This is the time allowed to join a new post or place on transfer. This is admissible
a. When transferred while on duty and
b. When transferred while on leave
The item (b) above is further classified
i. on return from earned leave
ii. on return from leave other than EL when the person has no sufficient information about his new appointment.
B. How granted
1. When there is no change of office or building, No joining time
2. For less than 8 km of distance from old station, One day
(When relieved from the old station on the AN of Saturday. Sunday the next day is counted as the day for this purpose. R 126)
Note: - A transfer shall be held to involve a change of station, only when the distance between two places is 8 km or more.
3. For a distance of 8 km and above
A, Preparation time 6 days
b. Journey time as below
i. Rail for every 500 km and fraction – 1 day each
ii. Road-for every 150 km and fraction – 1 day each
iii. Air-Actual time required for the journey (Part of a day is treated as one day)
4. Sundays are excluded for the calculation of joining time in ordinary course. But for maximum for 30 days.
5. Normally holidays are included in the Joining time. But when holidays follow joining time, joining time is deemed to have been extended to cover such holidays. R 127
6. When transferred while on transit, a second preparation time will not be allowed. R 130.
7. When transfer is subsequently cancelled, the period from the date of relief and re joining duty has to be treated as joining time. R 130
8. When transferred while on EL, the person has to join duty at the new place, only after the expiry of leave and admissible joining time. If he joins duty at the new station, before the expiry of leave, the availed portion of EL will be reduced by the admissible amount of joining time. R 131.
9. When joining time is combined with vacation, the person may join duty only at the end of vacation R 132.
10. Normally, joinint time is not allowed in the case of transfer at request. But journey time under item (30 above) will be allowed. Note below R 136.
11. As per rule 15 part II KSR, a journey or transfer is held to begin or end at the actual residence of the officer concerned. Hence, for the calculation of joining time, the distance of journey can be reckoned from residence to residence. But, it is to be noted that a government servant shall reside within 15 km of distance from his Head Quarter.
C. Exercise
An officer working in Thiruvananthapuram was transferred to Malappuram and relieved of his duties from the old station on the afternoon of 4th October (Monday) 2004. Distance from his residence to Central Railway Station, Thiruvananthapuram 11 km (rd), Thiruvananthapuram to Tirur 373 km (Rail) Tirur to Malappuram 29 km (road)
Ans Preparation time 6 days
Journey time
a. for rail journey of 373 km – 1 day
b. for road journey of 40 km (11+29) – 1
4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20
He will join duty at Malappuram on the FN of 14th (R-125-127)
D. Comment
a. Mr. X was transferred to an office at a distance of 6 km from the office where he was working. He was relieved on 6th (Saturday) morning. He joined duty at the new office on 8th (Monday) morning. (See R 126 and GD to R 137). He should have joined duty in the new office on the afternoon of 6th (Saturday) itself. His action was irregular)
b. An officer was transferred from Kasaragode to Thiruvananthapuram (580 km rail) and was relieved on the afternoon of 9th (Friday). He reported for joining duty in the new office on the forenoon of 20th Tuesday (See R-125-127) Correct action)

Foreign Service R 140-155)
A. An officer is said to be in Foreign service, when he is receiving his pay and allowances from a source other than the consolidated Fund of India or of a State R 12(9)
B. Conditions
1. No officer may be transferred to Foreign Service against his will. But Government can transfer an officer to a body or substantially owned and controlled by Government. R 140 (a).
2. government are the authorities to transfer an officer to Foreign Service R(140b)
3. No officer shall remain in Foreign service for more than 5 years at a time.
4. The duties to be performed during Foreign Service are such as those rendered by an officer of the government.
5. Foreign service begins from the date of relinquishment o charge in the Government Service R 144.
6. Foreign service ends on the day he rejoins duty in Government Service R 154.
7. No deputation allowance is allowed from 22.7.1997.
8. Pension contribution @ 15% and leave salary contribution @ 10% respectively of the maximum of the scale of pay of the officer should be remitted to Government as cost of service.
9. No leave salary contribution will be realized for an officer on deputation to an institution owned or controlled by the Government.
C. Comment.
a. A Deputy Secretary in the Government Secretariat was transferred to KSEB on deputation against his will (See rule 140 (a) action is in order)
b. An officer was sent to Foreign Service as per orders of the Head of the Department. He was allowed to join duty back in Government Service by the same authority after 6 years (See rules 140(b) and R 24. Government Order is necessary for the appointment in Foreign Service and for the readmission to Government Service. Maximum period of FS at a time shall not be in excess of 5 years. Hence the actions are irregular).

Kerala Service Rules-Part II
(Travelling Allowance Rules)
I. Introduction
Travelling Allowance is an allowance granted to an officer to cover the expenses incurred by him in traveling in the interest of public service. It includes allowances granted for the maintenance of conveyance (R 12(37) PI KSRs)
TA is classified as compensatory allowance and it should not be on the whole a source of profit to the recipient (R 44 PI KSRs)
II. Important Definitions
Day:- means day beginning and ending at midnight; but, an absence from Head Quarter which does not exceed 24 hours shall be reckoned as one day for calculating Ta, at whatever hours the absence begins or ends (R 12 (6) PI KSRs)
Head Quarter – means the radius of 8 km around the place or office in which an officer is employed. The office in which the officer is employed is called the duty point at the Head Quarter.
No TA is admissible for journey within the Head Quarters. But the items admissible are i. actual cost to the officers in Grade III or IV when deputed for duty o called to duty; ii. Allowance to teaching staff of Training Centres when deputed for practice teaching iii. Actual fare subject to a maximum of Rs. 10 to last grade employees attending treasury duty since 23.9.2002. and iv. Conveyance allowance to attend Annual firing course and NCC camp. (R 64, 5, 9, P II KSrs) G O (P) 567/02/Fin dated 23.9.2002 & notes 2 & 3 to R 57 (PII)
Pay means the amount drawn monthly by an officer as substantive pay or officiating pay including personal pay, special pay and any other emoluments specially classified as pay (R 12(23) PI KSRs)
Public conveyance means a train, steamer, bus, boat or other conveyance which plies regularly for conveyance of passengers (R12 (29) PI KSRs)
Special conveyance means a motor car or motor cycle/scooter engaged or used by an officer during tour for which the entire cost of its use and propulsion is paid by the officer. (note under R 31 part II KSRs)
III. General
The following are the five kinds of TA which may be drawn in different circumstances. R 5
1. Permanent Travelling Allowance
2. Permanent Conveyance Allowance
3. Mileage Allowance
4. Daily Allowance
5. Actual Expense
Permanent Travelling Allowance : It is a fixed monthly allowance granted to an officer for frequent travel within his jurisdiction. For the drawal of full amount of PTA, an officer should be on tour outside 8 km from his Head Quarters for 15 days in a month and should spend at least 6 hours outside Head Quarters on each day. If this minimum tour is not performed, PTA will be reduced proportionately. Ordinarily, PTA cannot be drawn along with any other TA
Permanent conveyance allowance : This is also a fixed monthly allowance granted to an officer for traveling extensively within Head Quarters. PCA can be drawn in addition to other forms of TA (R 9 to 11 P II)
Mileage Allowance: This is an allowance calculated on the distance traveled, which is granted to meet the cost of a particular journey. Rate of mileage in respect of different journeys (Rail, Road, Air and Water) is varied (See parts V and VI of this note)
(R 12 to 36 P II KSRs)
Daily Allowance: This is a uniform allowance for each day of absence from Head Quarter, which is intended to cover the ordinary charges incurred by an officer in consequence of such absence (R 37 to 40 P II KSRs)
Actual expense: This is the actual cost of part of the actual cost of Ta, where no means of conveyance by on at the expense of the Government, or to be drawn as TA, is permissible. (R 41 Part II KSRs)
IV. Important Points on Tour TA (R 12 to 52, 55 to 64 and 100 to 110)
The following are the main points to be borne in mind while calculating Tour Travelling Allowance.
1. The Head quarter of an officer shall be in such a place as the Government may prescribe (R 46)
2. The Government may define the limits of the sphere of duty of an officer (R47)
3. An officer is on tour when absent on duty from his Head Quarters either within or beyond his sphere of duty as permitted (R48)
4. The TA drawn by an officer on tour ordinarily takes the shape of either PTA or Daily Allowance, if either of these is admissible to him (R52)
5. Minimum TA admissible is one DA, when an officer goes out side his Head Quarters on tour except in cases where means of locomotion is supplied (R55). It cannot be drawn for any day in which a Government Servant does not go outside a radius of 6 km from the duty point or his HQ or return to it from a similar point (R57)
6. For Journeys within a radius of 8 km from HQ, an officer not in receipt of conveyance allowance can be given the actual hiring charge of conveyance (R64 and notes)
7. In respect of journeys involving an overnight halt at an intermediate station either duty to non availability of connecting service or due to the cancellation of connecting at service, half daily allowance will be allowed at the rate applicable to the intermediate station for each night halt. (Note 4 under R 58) when no facility is provided by the Indian Airlines.
8. When two journeys are performed within a period of 24 hours, the period of absence from HQ will be treated as one day irrespective of the fact that the journey was performed on two calendar days, and Daily Allowance is granted accordingly (R56)
9. DA for journey and DA for halt will not be allowed on the same day (within 24 hours) exchange this DA for mileage (R62(a)(iii)
10. When journey is performed for more than 32 km and the mileage calculated comes to less than the amount of one DA, the DA of the officer can be exchanged for mileage (R55 and G.D (ii) to R 63)
11. The DA admissible for halt an outstation and DA/MA admissible for the journey should be calculated separately, irrespective of whether the halt is preceded of followed by a journey which qualifies for daily/mileage allowance (GD(i) to R 63)
12. If the officer on tour returns to the first outstation on the same day DA can be exchanged for mileage allowances. In such cases, no DA in addition is admissible.
13. When Government vehicle is provided no mileage allowance will be allowed, only incidental expenses subject to a minimum of half DA (Note (5) R 31, (R107 and 110 P II)
14. Fraction of one rupee. i.e., 50 paise of more shall be rounded to one rupee
15. In the case of long journey, an intermediate halt can be allowed after completing 200 km of distance. If such journey is late in the night such intermediate halt can be availed before completing 200 km. No DA is allowed for such halt. (GD 1 to R 31)
16. Half DA is allowed for intermediate halt after completing 200 km in departmental vehicle. (GD 3 to R 31)
17. If journey is performed partly by Air or rail and partly by road, he mileage for road portion of not more than 32 km of distance, shall not be in excess of one DA.
18. Journey for a distance within 50 kms shall be commenced on the date of official duty and the return journey shall also be on the day of which the duty is over (note 2 to R 14)
19. Time limit for claiming TA is 2 years (25 A)
20. Arrear claims shall not be allowed on revision of scale of pay, retrospective promotion, confirmation etc. But it will be admissible on belated increment in the usual course or on pay slip.
21. Officers who are eligible for I class accommodation will be entitled to travel in second AC Coaches. Grade II (b) Officers will be entitled to third AC only, and if there is no such facility, second AC will be allowed. G O (P) 1225/2000/Fin dated 17.10.2000.
22. Grade I Officers traveling to metropolitan cities and other large cities will be allowed to hire taxi cars for the day. (G O (P) 707/95/Fin dated 25.10.1995)
23. Reservation charges paid for railway journeys in respect of the appropriate classes of accommodation will be reimbursed forming part of the fare in cases where reservation is actually required in exigencies of public service. (GD 2 under R 20)
24. Auto rickshaw/taxi charges at the rate admissible will be reimbursed for the journey from residence or office to Airport/Railway Station/Bus Station and back, subject to a maximum distance of 8 km each way. Only Grade I Officers are eligible for taxi charge. (Note 3 to R 14)
a. For the calculation of Travelling Allowance, offices are classified into four as followes, as per G O (P) No. 145/2006/Fin dated 25.3.2006.
Grade 1 - Officers with actual pay of Rs. 14,900 and above, and Heads of Departments, All India Service Officers, Private Secretaries to Minister and Speaker, irrespective of the amount of pay drawn by them
Grade II (a) Officers with actual pay of Rs. 12400 and above, but below Rs. 14900
Grade II (b) Officers with actual pay of Rs. 8000 and above, but below Rs. 12400 (NGOs except Last Grade, whey they accompany the Governor, Advisors or ministers on tour will be treated as Grade II (b) irrespective of their pay)
Grade III Officers with actual pay of Rs. 5000 and above, but below Rs. 8000
Grade IV Officers with actual pay below Rs. 5000. (pay includes basic pay, dearness pay, Personal pay and special pay in lieu of higher scale of pay).
b. Halt how to reckon for Daily Allowance
1. Upto 6 hours - No DA
2. Above six hours upto 12 hours - Half DA
3. Above 12 hours upto 24 hours - Full DA
4. Halt exceeding 24 hours - apply principals 1 to 3 above
5. Halt constructively in camp on holidays - DA admissible
6. Halt in camp on holidays;but no work - No DA
7. When free boarding & lodging are allowed ¼ DA
8. When free lodging alone is allowed - 2/3 DA
9. When free boarding alone is allowed - ½ DA
c. For hilly tract
Class I hilly tract - 25% of TA and DA in addition
Class II hilly tract - 121/2 of TA and DA in addition
Note:- maximum period of halt for DA is 3 months. i.e., DA at full rate for the first 10 days, at ¾ rate for the next 20 days and at ½ rate for the remaining 60 days.
d. Rate for Daily Allowance (w.e.f. 25.3.2006)
Grade of Officers Inside State Outside State
Grade I Rs. 150 Rs. 220
Grade II (a) Rs. 120 Rs. 170
Grade II (b) Rs. 120 Rs. 140
Grade III Rs. 100 Rs. 110
Grade IV Rs. 100 Rs. 110
(Rules for DA 37 to 40, 56 & 57 P II KSRs)
e. Rail mileage (w.e.f. 25.3.2006)
Grade I : II AC+incidental expenses @ 25 paise per km subject to a minimum of ½ DA
Grade II (a) : I class (if train doesn’t have I class, II AC)+incidental expenses @ 20 paise per km subject to a minimum of ½ DA
Grade II (b) : III AC (if train doesn’t have III AC, I class)+incidental expenses @ 18 paise per km subject to a minimum of ½ DA
Grade III : II class fare+incidental expenses @ 15 paise per km subject to a minimum of ½ DA.
Grade IV : II class fare +incidental expenses @ 15 paise per km subject to a minimum of ½ DA.
f. Road mileage (w.e.f. 25.3.2006)
From 25.3.2006, road mileage is fixed @ 80 paise per km for all categories of employee + incidental as under item (e) above.
g. For air journey (w.e.f. 25.3.2006)
Heads of Departments, Private Secretary to Ministers and All India Service Officers irrespective of their pay scale and officers in the pay scale of Rs. 16650-23200 and above will be eligible for air journey. Incidentals for air journey will stand discontinued with effect from 25.3.2006.
VI. Transfer TA Rules (R.65 to 67 P II)
A. General
1. A transfer should involve a change of station. (the distance between the two places should be 8 km or more)
1. The transfer should be in the interest of public service. (No TA, for transfer ‘on request’. But if the transfer ‘on request’ is after completion of one full year, excluding period of leave, at a station, T.A. is allowed) G O (P) 480/89/Fin dated 1.11.1989.
2. The Distance for the calculation of transfer TA should be the distance from old residence to the new residence (R15 part II) It may be noted that a Government Servant should reside within 15 km of radius from his Head Quarters.
3. When a Government Servant holding substantive post, is appointed to another post as per the advice of PSC, TA is admissible as on transfer (note 1 to R 65).
4. For temporary transfer (for a period not more than two months), no transfer T.A. is admissible. T.A. and D.A. as on tour is admissible. But, when the period is further prolonged, transfer TA shall be granted. But, no refund is necessary if the amount of tour TA already received is larger. (Note 2 to R 65)


The National Service Scheme (NSS) is a noble experiment in academic expansion. The overall aim of NSS is to give an extension dimension to the higher education system and orient the student youth to community service.

The main objective of the NSS are to understand the community in which they work, to identify the needs and problems of the community, to acquire leadership quality and democratic attitude, to promote national integration and social harmony and so on.

The NSS activities are divided into two groups – Regular Activity and Special Camping Programmes. Under Regular Activities, NSS volunteers undertake 120 hours various activities in adopted villages and slums 10 days Camping Programme are organized on various development issues of National importance.

At present there are 240 NSS units in the VHSE schools. The Directorate of VHSE won the State Award during 2003-2004.

The NSS wing has since initiated several innovative programmes like Echo School Programme, ‘Nammude Maram Pathathi’ Student Police Cadet Scheme, NSS Sureksha Bhavan, NSS Resource Group etc.